A chimera discussed in this thesis involves an organism which is formed by two or more different cells of genotypes. It is a kind of regulatory development relation between cell and cell in cell level, so all the cells still retain their original characteristics. If the chimeras contain the human cell populations, in particular the human embryo or human embryonic stem cells derived from embryo, while the other cell populations from the animal, then they are known as the human-animal/animal-human chimeras. This thesis tries to explore respectively the meaning and limitations of chimeras from the scientific, religious/ethical and legal dimensions. First, from the scientific viewpoint, this thesis explores the biological basis of chimeras, including their meaning, origin, type and manufacturing principle, and clarifies the distinction among chimeras, hybrids, cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids) and transgenic organisms. Meanwhile, this thesis discusses also the important issues of human-animal/animal human chimeras, and their various types of possible combination, divided into two kinds of types: embryonic development type chimeras and tissue/organ transplantation type chimeras.
Furthermore, it is more important to argue the metaphysical, moral and legal status of human-animal/animal-human chimeras. In accordance with the "both/and solution" and "tissues/function thinking model", this thesis discusses respectively a variety of human-animal/animal-human chimeras attributes and analyses whether the human-animal/ animal-human chimeras have the personhood in religious/ethical viewpoint? If they have the personhood, whether they are equal to the personhood of human? As a starting point for thinking with human embryo, this thesis tries to reason the moral status of human-animal/animal-human chimeras, should they be treated with the dignity of personhood? Finally, in jurisprudent viewpoint, this thesis discusses chiefly whether the human-animal/animal-human chimeras are the "person" of constitution? Should they be protected under the human dignity and the right to life? As the human-animal/animal-human chimeras have confused and blurred the boundaries of human and animal, and violated the sanctity of human life and physical integrity of mankind, that gives rise to the religious, ethical, social and legal serious concerns, so there are a necessity to be regulated. In this thesis, I will discuss the legal system of U.K., Japan, Germany and United States. The UK is currently a world leader not only in embryological research and cloning, but also in policy making in this field. The UK Government has established a mechanism to be able to balance scientific development and ethical issues and that its regulatory policy in embryological research has provided a permissive but strictly regulated environment, and developed a set of workable regulation. So the UK is recognised as a good example of developing bio-technology and regulated policy. This thesis also describes the Warnock Report, the Human Fertilization and Embryology Act 1990/2008, and introduces its specified content and control model; Japan formulated “The Law Concerning Regulation Relating to Human Cloning Techniques and Other Similar Techniques (2000) ”, which detailed nine types of specified embryos and their regulation, and became the most sophisticated legal system in the classification of embryo in the world; Germany passed “The Embryo Protection Act (Embryonenschutzgesetz) (1990)” to fulfill the commandment of the Basic Law to protect the right to life and human dignity, and believed that the human egg cell, fertilised and capable of developing, from the time of fusion of the nuclei, and meanwhile the human embryo has life, he/she should be subject to the protection of the right to life and human dignity. The embryo is to be treated as an end in itself, cannot be regarded as a means of other purpose. therefore, except for reproductive purposes, it need to prohibit any form of acts of manipulating the embryos, including manufacturing the chimeras and hybrids with the human embryos; In the United States, there is no unification of the legislation and a exclusively regulatory body to regulate the human embryos and human embryonic stem cells for the use and research , but the U.S. government and relating body make use of multiple and complex regulatory tool, respectively, from the judicial decisions, legislative and executive budget and funding , human subjects protection regulation and the internal guideline of scientific community, to
achieve its policy objective of regulation.
Finally, this thesis compares and analyses the legislation of regulation, the governed activities and regulatory models on the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany and the U.S., and then provides the comment and suggestion of legislation to “The Bill of Human Embryo and
Human Embryonic Stem Cell for the Research, Taiwan, ROC”.