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標題: 人獸嵌合體之行政管制研究
Administrative Regulation of Human-Animal/Animal-Human Chimeras
作者: 蘇顯騰
Su, Hsien-Teng
Contributors: 鄭旭辰;李崇僖
林昱梅
Yuh-May Lin
中興大學
關鍵字: embryo;chimera, hybrid;cytoplasmic hybrid;embryo aggregation;cell fusion;cloning;regulatory development;human-animal/animal-human chimeras;personhood
胚胎;嵌合體;雜交體;胞質雜合體;胚胎聚合;細胞融合;複製;調節發育;人獸嵌合體;位格
日期: 2010
Issue Date: 2012-09-04 13:55:51 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 科技法律研究所
摘要: 本論文所探討之生物嵌合體,係指涉一種生物體而由兩種以上不同基因型之細胞群所組成者。它是一種在細胞層次上細胞與細胞間的調節發育關係,因此各該細胞仍保有其原有之特性。若該生物嵌合體含有人類之細胞群,特別是人類胚胎或由其所衍生之人類胚胎幹細胞,而其他為動物之細胞群者,則稱為人獸嵌合體。本論文從科學、宗教倫理與法學三個面向分別探索生物嵌合體之內涵及其限制。首先,從科學角度探討生物嵌合體之生物學基礎,分為生物嵌合體之意義、起源、類型及製造原理,並釐定生物嵌合體與雜交體、胞質雜合體、基因轉殖生物體間之區別,及進一步探討人獸嵌合體的各項議題,闡述人獸嵌合體的各種可能的組合類型,分為胚胎發育型之人類-動物嵌合體、動物-人類嵌合體,與組織器官移植型之人類-動物嵌合體、動物-人類嵌合體。再者,更重要的是從宗教倫理之觀點探討人獸嵌合體的形上、道德與法律上地位,依照「既/且解決方案」與「組織/功能思考模式」分別論述各種人獸嵌合體的屬性,以及是否具有位格?如其具有位格,是否等同於人類的位格?本論文試者以人類胚胎作為思考起點,推論人獸嵌合體的道德地位,應否受到位格尊嚴的對待?最後,再從法學之觀點,本論文簡要地論述該人獸嵌合體是否為憲法上之「人」,應否受人性尊嚴及生命權之保障?
由於人獸嵌合體,已混淆與模糊了人類與動物之界線,侵犯了人類生命的神聖性與身體的完整性,而引起宗教、倫理、社會與法律的嚴重關切,有予以管制之必要。本論文乃以英、日、德、美四國之法制作為探討之對象。英國在胚胎學及複製技術領域,一直領先世界,且在政策制定方面,具有一個靈敏的且以科學為基礎之管制系統,並致力於建立一個能夠平衡科學發展與倫理爭議之機制,在管制政策上提供一個許可的但嚴格管制的環境,並發展及制定可操作的法律規範,因此被世界各國視為發展生物科技與管制政策的良好範例。本論文敘述了Warnock報告、1990年及2008年之人類受精及胚胎學法,並介紹其具體內涵及管制模式;日本於2000年制定了人類複製技術及其近似術規制法,詳列九種類型之特定胚胎及其管制,為世界將胚胎分類最為精細之法制,本論文也分析其矛盾與缺失;德國為履行基本法保障生命權及人性尊嚴之誡命,於1990年所制定之胚胎保護法,認為胚胎從人類精、卵受精完成之時起,即具有生命,其應受生命權和人性尊嚴保護,胚胎應被以目的本身對待,不得將其視為他人目的之手段或工具,因此,除為生殖目的外,禁止任何形式的操弄胚胎的行為,包括以人類胚胎製造人獸嵌合體及雜交體;美國對於管制人類胚胎及其衍生之胚胎幹細胞的使用與研究,並無統一之立法及專責之管制機構,但美國政府及相關機構運用多重而複雜的管制工具,分別從司法判決、行政預算與資助(補助)、人類受試者保護、與科學社群內部規範等多方面,來達成其政策管制之目標。本論文最後就英、日、德、美四國法制對於人獸胚胎之管制立法、管制活動內容及管制方式作比較分析,並對我國之人類胚胎及胚胎幹細胞研究條例草案之內容提出評論與立法建議。
A chimera discussed in this thesis involves an organism which is formed by two or more different cells of genotypes. It is a kind of regulatory development relation between cell and cell in cell level, so all the cells still retain their original characteristics. If the chimeras contain the human cell populations, in particular the human embryo or human embryonic stem cells derived from embryo, while the other cell populations from the animal, then they are known as the human-animal/animal-human chimeras. This thesis tries to explore respectively the meaning and limitations of chimeras from the scientific, religious/ethical and legal dimensions. First, from the scientific viewpoint, this thesis explores the biological basis of chimeras, including their meaning, origin, type and manufacturing principle, and clarifies the distinction among chimeras, hybrids, cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids) and transgenic organisms. Meanwhile, this thesis discusses also the important issues of human-animal/animal human chimeras, and their various types of possible combination, divided into two kinds of types: embryonic development type chimeras and tissue/organ transplantation type chimeras.
Furthermore, it is more important to argue the metaphysical, moral and legal status of human-animal/animal-human chimeras. In accordance with the "both/and solution" and "tissues/function thinking model", this thesis discusses respectively a variety of human-animal/animal-human chimeras attributes and analyses whether the human-animal/ animal-human chimeras have the personhood in religious/ethical viewpoint? If they have the personhood, whether they are equal to the personhood of human? As a starting point for thinking with human embryo, this thesis tries to reason the moral status of human-animal/animal-human chimeras, should they be treated with the dignity of personhood? Finally, in jurisprudent viewpoint, this thesis discusses chiefly whether the human-animal/animal-human chimeras are the "person" of constitution? Should they be protected under the human dignity and the right to life? As the human-animal/animal-human chimeras have confused and blurred the boundaries of human and animal, and violated the sanctity of human life and physical integrity of mankind, that gives rise to the religious, ethical, social and legal serious concerns, so there are a necessity to be regulated. In this thesis, I will discuss the legal system of U.K., Japan, Germany and United States. The UK is currently a world leader not only in embryological research and cloning, but also in policy making in this field. The UK Government has established a mechanism to be able to balance scientific development and ethical issues and that its regulatory policy in embryological research has provided a permissive but strictly regulated environment, and developed a set of workable regulation. So the UK is recognised as a good example of developing bio-technology and regulated policy. This thesis also describes the Warnock Report, the Human Fertilization and Embryology Act 1990/2008, and introduces its specified content and control model; Japan formulated “The Law Concerning Regulation Relating to Human Cloning Techniques and Other Similar Techniques (2000) ”, which detailed nine types of specified embryos and their regulation, and became the most sophisticated legal system in the classification of embryo in the world; Germany passed “The Embryo Protection Act (Embryonenschutzgesetz) (1990)” to fulfill the commandment of the Basic Law to protect the right to life and human dignity, and believed that the human egg cell, fertilised and capable of developing, from the time of fusion of the nuclei, and meanwhile the human embryo has life, he/she should be subject to the protection of the right to life and human dignity. The embryo is to be treated as an end in itself, cannot be regarded as a means of other purpose. therefore, except for reproductive purposes, it need to prohibit any form of acts of manipulating the embryos, including manufacturing the chimeras and hybrids with the human embryos; In the United States, there is no unification of the legislation and a exclusively regulatory body to regulate the human embryos and human embryonic stem cells for the use and research , but the U.S. government and relating body make use of multiple and complex regulatory tool, respectively, from the judicial decisions, legislative and executive budget and funding , human subjects protection regulation and the internal guideline of scientific community, to
achieve its policy objective of regulation.
Finally, this thesis compares and analyses the legislation of regulation, the governed activities and regulatory models on the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany and the U.S., and then provides the comment and suggestion of legislation to “The Bill of Human Embryo and
Human Embryonic Stem Cell for the Research, Taiwan, ROC”.
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