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標題: 10-氧-反-8-癸烯酸(ODA)對食藥用菇類菌絲生長之影響
Effect of 10-Oxo-trans-8-decenoic Acid on Growth of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms
作者: 馬榮村
Ma, Jung-Tsun
Contributors: 毛正倫
Jeng-Leun Mau, Ph.D.
國立中興大學
關鍵字: mushroom;ODA;mycelial growth;liquid culture;dry biomass;jar-fermentor
菇類;ODA;菌絲生長;液態培養;菌絲乾重;發酵槽
日期: 1999
Issue Date: 2012-09-04 14:36:03 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 食品科學系
摘要: 食藥用菇類一直以來為國人所食用,由於含有豐富的膳食纖維、蛋白質、維生素、幾丁質和礦物質等,故為一項受歡迎的健康食品。食藥用菇類之子實體及菌絲體可用來作為食品、調味料、及產生特殊化學物質(水溶性多醣、維生素、有機酸、核酸和酵素)和醫療用物質(抗生素、抗癌抗病藥物),因此逐漸成為世界各國發展之高價值農產品。
10-Oxo-trans-8-decenoic acid(ODA)是菇類在受到傷害時,因酵素作用而生成,並與菇醇(1-octen-3-ol)同時形成。其中菇醇為菇類最主要之香氣特徵,而ODA為菇類之生理活性物質,可促進菌絲之生長及蕈柄之延長。本研究探討ODA對食藥用菇類菌絲體在固體、液體及發酵槽培養過程中生長之影響。
在食藥用菇類菌絲體線性生長速率上,ODA對香菇台農一號、雲芝、杏鮑菇、金針菇、巴西洋菇菌絲有促進生長的作用。在雲芝、杏鮑菇及金針菇中促進生長效果分別為添加10 ppm >5 ppm>2.5 ppm>控制組,且10 ppm之ODA添加量可使雲芝、杏鮑菇、金針菇之相對生長速率分別為1.472、1.890及1.251。ODA對香菇台農一號和巴西洋菇菌絲有促進生長作用,但在不同處理組之間則不顯著;但ODA對香菇271及草菇的作用在處理組與控制組沒有差異。
食藥用菇類菌絲體液態培養中,雲芝、杏鮑菇和金針菇之菌絲乾重及漆活性在實驗中隨添加ODA量增加而增加。在使用之最高濃度10 ppm之ODA,雲芝菌絲乾重可提高至控制組的121%;而杏鮑菇和金針菇分別可達控制組的123%及114%。在漆活性測定上,雲芝之活性可提高至156%;而杏鮑菇與金針菇則分別可提高178%及153%。香菇271在液態培養期間受ODA刺激不明顯,所以表現在液態培養中與控制組之間沒有顯著性;而ODA對香菇台農一號有促進作用,但在不同濃度之間並不顯著。
在杏鮑菇菌絲體發酵培養上,培養至第五天時殘糖下降量趨於平緩,添加ODA可使菌絲提高對培養基中的糖吸收因而提高菌絲乾重。在添加10 ppm ODA中可提高菌絲產量138%。
本研究為評估ODA對食藥用菇類菌絲體的影響。將被ODA促進生長的食藥用菇類實際應用於商業栽培中如雲芝、杏鮑菇和金針菇及杏鮑菇的發酵工業中,應可縮短栽培時間、提高生產力,因而增加產品之競爭力以及縮短發酵培養時間、提高菌絲產率而達到節省人力、物力資源,在食品工業上都是一個十分值得發展的方法。
Edible and medicinal mushrooms have long been used as food. Because they are rich in dietary fiber, protein, vitamins, chitin, and minerals, they are popular health food. The fruit bodies and mycelia of edible and medicinal mushrooms can be used as foods, condiments, special chemicals, such as soluble polysaccharides, vitamins, organic acids, nucleotides, enzymes etc. and medical materials such as antitumor and antidisease drugs. Therefore, they have gradually become highly valuable produce, which are developed by countries all over the world.
10-Oxo-trans-8-decenoic acid (ODA) is a product formed concurrently with 1-octen-3-ol from linoleic acid by the action of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase when the mushroom tissue is damaged or disrupted. 1-Octen-3-ol is the principal characteristic of mushroom flavor, and ODA that is a biologically active substance or growth hormone of mushrooms, promotes mycelial growth and stipe elongation. The objectives of the present research were to study the effects of ODA on the growth of edible and medicinal mushroom mycelia on PDY agar, in liquid culture, and in jar-fermentor.
On the linear growth rate of edible and medicinal mycelium, ODA had significant effects on the mycelial growth of Agaricus blazei, Coriolus versicolor, Flammulina velutipes, Lentinula edodes (Tainung 1), and Pleurotus eryngii. The effects of ODA on C. versicolor, F. velutipes, and P. eryngii were in order of 10 ppm> 5 ppm> 2.5 ppm ODA> control. Among the treatments, 10 ppm ODA could increase relative linear growth rate of C. versicolor, P. eryngii, and F. velutipes to 1.472, 1.890, and 1.251, respectively. ODA could promote mycelia growth of A. blazei and L. edodes (Tainung 1), but no significant difference was observed among treatments. However, the effects of ODA on L. edodes (271), and Volvariella volvacea were not significantly different among treatments.
In liquid culture of edible and medicinal mycelium, it was found that the higher the concentrations of ODA, the higher the dry biomasses and the laccase activity of C. versicolor, P. eryngii, and F. velutipes. At 10 ppm ODA, the dry biomasses were about 121%, 123%, and 114%, and the laccase activity increased 156%, 178%, and 153% for C. versicolor, P. eryngii, and F. velutipes mycelia growth compared with the control, respectively.
In jar-fermentor of P. eryngii, it was found that the rate of decrease in the residual sugar slowed down till 5th day. Because adding ODA increased mycelia assimilation of sugar in medium, the dry biomass also increased. At 10 ppm ODA, the biomass was about 138% compared with the control.
It can reduce the culturing time and increase production by applying ODA for bottle cultivation of mushroom such as A. blazei, C. versicolor, F. velutipes, L. edodes (Tainung 1), and P. eryngii and fermentation industry such as P. eryngii. It is more economical and beneficial for the development on food industry.
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