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標題: 大台中的小東南亞 -外籍勞工聚集與異文化空間形塑之過程
Southeast Asian Town in Taichung -Formation Process of Heterotopia by Transnational Labors
作者: 楊貞慧
Yang, Chen-Hui
Contributors: 劉曜華;王宏仁
Yao-Hua Liou;Hung-Zen Wang
董建宏
Chien-Hung Tung
中興大學
關鍵字: Transnational workers;Consumer space;Heterotopia;Urban landscape
外籍勞工;消費空間;異文化;都市地景
日期: 2012
Issue Date: 2012-09-04 16:20:29 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 景觀與遊憩碩士學位學程
摘要: 1980年代台灣政府為了十四項建設,始開放自東南亞引進外籍勞工,1980年代後期發生勞工短缺現象,因工資不斷上漲,為降低成本,部分廠商開始到東南亞國家設廠,如泰國、印尼、馬來西亞、菲律賓等國家,因為這些國家的勞力充沛而且工資低廉,同時台灣勞工對一些風險性高、特別辛勞的工作,也不願從事,於是建築業首先引進外勞。外籍勞工主要分兩種:一種從事建築工程、漁船及特別辛苦的勞工;一為幫傭,專司看護老年人、殘疾人。
外籍勞工的長期造訪不僅改變了地主國的環境地景,也創造了許多實質與虛擬的跨國空間,台灣的大都市中皆已發展出外籍勞工的生活聚落,經由資本的流動、資訊及科技的網絡促成跨國連帶的維繫;人們雖然跨越了地理疆界,卻往往跨不過國族及其他社會界線的無形藩籬。
本研究以台中市第一廣場為調查地點,觀察自外籍勞工聚集後,附近商業型態的變遷與都市地景的改變,如本國商家的轉型經營或是歇業、東南亞商業的興起使原本蕭條的第一廣場又重燃生機、廣場舉辦以外勞為主的大型活動等;有別於政府力量推動的主流文化脈動,由社群聚集、地方經濟推動產生了新的經濟復甦,外籍勞工的聚集同時帶動了商業行為,但其所形塑之空間卻宛如與世隔絕的場所,與地主國的消費空間形成了區域隔閡,此型態的異文化消費空間、都市地景並不被主流文化所接納,儘管如此,此一它者文化所形塑出之消費模式與休憩空間仍別具特色與影響力。
In the 1980s, the government introduced transnational labor from Southeast Asia for 14 major project. And by the late 1980s in Taiwan, there occurred wage rising and therefore increased the cost of production for many business due to the labor shortage. At the same time, in order to reduce the cost, some manufacturers began to move to Southeast Asia countries, such as Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines and other countries, because of their labor-abundance and low wages. Besides the above reasons, Taiwanese workers do not want to do risk or laborious works, therefore, the construction industry was the first one to introduce transnational labor. Since then, transnational labor in Taiwan is divided in two different working types: one engaged in construction, fishing and special laborious; the other one work for domestics, solely on the care of the elderly and persons with disabilities.
Long-term stay of transnational labors not only changed the landscape of the host country, but also created a numerous of real and virtual international spaces. Through the capital flows, information and transnational networks of technology, Taiwan cities have developed the varied types of commercial spaces for transnational labors, and also promoted international contact. Even though people could cross geographical boundaries but they can't resist the prejudice of nationalism and other invisible social barriers.
The study takes the Taichung First Square as the study area, to observe the changes of business type and urban landscape after transnational labors gathered there, such as transformation of business or close down of local business, etc. These rising Southeast Asia business rekindled the Taichung First Square. Unlike the mainstream culture promoted by state forces, there is a new consumer heterotopias emerging- an urban landscape whose growth provides a new gathered community for transnational labors and local economy with more energy and influence.
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