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標題: 26 種非殺線蟲性農藥對植物寄生性及腐生性線蟲的影響
The Effect of 26 Non-nematicide Pesticides on Plant Parasitic and Free-living Nematodes
作者: 葉耀仁
Yeh, Yao-Jen
Contributors: 高清文;陳殿義;顏志恒
蔡東纂
Thung-Tsuan Tsay
中興大學
關鍵字: control;free-living nematodes;fungicides;herbicides;insecticides;plant-parasitic nematodes
防治;腐生性線蟲;殺菌劑;除草劑;殺蟲劑;植物寄生性線蟲
日期: 2011
Issue Date: 2012-09-04 16:29:19 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 植物病理學系所
摘要: 中文摘要
除了殺線蟲劑之外,其他常用非殺線蟲劑之農藥也曾被報導對不同生長時期之植物寄生性線蟲有多種不同程度之影響。本實驗選用南方根瘤線蟲﹙Meloidogyne incognita﹚、南方根腐線蟲﹙Pratylenchus coffeae﹚與一種腐生性線蟲Rhabditis sp.,進行非殺線蟲劑的藥劑試驗,且分別計算其直接致死率、孵化率、侵染能力、土中族群數量與根瘤指數及根腐指數,欲從試驗結果中找出具防治線蟲潛力之藥劑,及了解藥劑對線蟲影響的方式。供試藥劑選用13種殺菌劑,6種殺蟲劑和7種除草劑,其化學分類類型皆不相同。結果顯示,對供試線蟲之抑制及致死效果顯著者,殺菌劑有3種、殺蟲劑和除草劑各分別有5種。在這其中又以依得利(殺菌劑),佈飛松、阿巴汀(殺蟲劑),施得圃、丁基拉草(除草劑)抑制效果最穩定也最顯著,以上藥劑對南方根瘤線蟲與南方根腐線蟲都有62.4%~100%的直接致死能力,且皆可抑制南方根瘤線蟲卵孵化。而對供試線蟲之影響,只有某個生長時期,而非全面性的藥劑有鏈黴素,它雖不具有直接毒殺的效果,但卻可抑制南方根瘤線蟲卵孵化。2,4-D對南方根瘤線蟲二齡幼蟲有顯著的直接致死能力,對南方根腐線蟲則無,但嘉磷塞異丙銨鹽的處理結果則是相反情況,此現象說明不同的線蟲對同樣的藥劑也會有不一樣的反應。若想應用這些藥劑於防治植物線蟲病害,需要再進一步探討其施用方式與濃度,目前這些藥劑原先的推薦施用方式或施用濃度,尚未能達到良好的防治效果。
Abstract
Pesticides not including nematicides were reported to affect nematodes at different stages throughout their life cycle. Thirteen fungicides, 7 herbicides and 6 insecticides that belongs to different chemical categories were evaluated for their effects on nematodes throughout their life cycle. Two different categories of plant parasitic nematodes and a free living nematode were included in this study; pesticides effects including direct toxicity, egg hatching rate, nematode penetration ability and population were evaluated. Results showed tree fungicides, five insecticides and five herbicides had the potential to be integrated into nematode control methods. Among these agents, Etridiazole, Profenofs, Abamectin, Pendimethalin and Butachlor had the most significant and consistent effects on inhibiting the nematodes. They showed the most strong direct toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus coffeae, and could suppress the egg hatching rate of M. incognita. Some pesticides showed suppression to a specific life stage of nematode, for example, Streptomycin did not have direct toxicity to M. incognita, but could suppress the egg hatching rate. Some pesticides showed nematode-specific effects, for instance, 2,4-D had direct toxicity to M. incognita, but not to P. coffeae, and Glyphosate isopropyl amino had the opposite resuts. Although results indicating these non-nematicide pesticides had nematode controlling effects, the current recommendation concentration and application method of these pesticides were not adequate for practical usage. Further studies need to be done to integrate these pesticides into nematode disease management.
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