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標題: 1879年日本併吞琉球與琉案交涉
The Annexation of Ryukyu by Japan and Ryukyu Negotiation in 1879
作者: 仲宗根良治
Ryoji, Nakasone
Contributors: 陳哲三;孟祥瀚;黃秀政
黃秀政
中興大學
關鍵字: 琉球處分;琉球人漂流殺害事件;台灣出兵;琉案交涉
Ryukyus disciplinary action;The even of Ryukyu residents being murdered at a Drifted current sea by Chinese;Japan sent forth the army to Taiwan;The cause of Ryukyus negotiation
日期: 2010
Issue Date: 2012-09-11 11:30:53 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 歷史學系所
摘要: 古代中國與日本的歷史文章中,都有記錄有關琉球國的史實。例如:中國方面的文章:《隋書》、《唐書》、《新唐書》、《宋史》、《元史》、《明史》、《清史》;日本的;《日本書記》還有《續日本書記》。從中可得知中日琉關係的源起,中日琉交錯的關係在很早前即已開始。
根據史料研究顯示:西元1372年琉球存在三個獨立的國家,即中山國、南山國和北山國。1372年琉球三國的中山國開始向明朝朝貢,其後1416年南山國和北山國也為了自己國家的利益向明朝朝貢。中山國統一琉球之後仍繼續向明朝朝貢,一直到清朝末年。從元朝至明朝,琉球與中國的宗藩持續不綴。
西元1609年日本薩摩藩的軍隊3,000人,率軍船一百艘侵略琉球國,結果琉球被打敗,變成日本薩摩藩的殖民地。其後控制琉球的朝貢貿易並開始中國和日本兩屬的關係,一直到琉球滅亡為止。日本的勢力至此進入琉球,中、日兩國在琉球分別有其影響,因而形成琉球問題的濫觴。
1868年日本明治維新之後,開始引進國外的政治體制、軍事武器,進行富國強兵政策。此後三年為了國內的強化,實施廢藩置縣,琉球變成日本的一部分--琉球藩,同時由外務省變成內務省管轄,其後日本強制禁止琉球向中國朝貢。
1879年琉球被日本滅亡之後,揭開琉球獨立運動的序幕,此方法是琉球官員向日本、清朝、駐日外國大使提出陳情書,結果引發國際問題。首先,清朝駐日公使何如璋與日本談判之際,何如璋的失言導致琉案談判失敗;其二,前美國總統格蘭忒與日本明治天皇會談之時,提議琉球劃分案;其三,總理衙門與日本駐清朝的賓戶璣公使談判的結果,雙方約定琉球劃分案,結果仍然無效,琉球成為日本的保護國。以上是琉球的獨立運動的肇始,然而在日本強權勢力的左右之下,琉球的獨立運動始終沒有成功。
Both ancient Chinese and Japanese histories have Written
About the existence of the Ryukyu Kingdom. In China.the
passages that talk about The Ryukyu Kingdom are mentioned
in the following books,such as"The Book of the Sui Dynasty","The Book of the Tang Dynasty",“The book of the New Tang Dynasty",“The History of the Sung Dynasty”,“The History of the Yuan Dynasty”,“The History of the Ming Dynasty”,and "The History of the Chin(Qin)Dynasty”.In Japan,the books which also talk about the Ryukyu Kingdom are The Japan Book Marks 1and 2.
In 1372 A.D.,there were three independent countries in Ryukyu. One of them was called the Chuzan Kingdom which paid tribute to China.In 1416,the other two countries by the names of the Nanzan Kingdom and the Hokuzan Kingdom also paid tribute to China for their own good. The three countries in Ryukyu paid tribute to China till the end of the China Dynasty. During this period of time the three countries were united into one by the Chuzan Kingdom.
In 1609,the Satsuma frontier in Japan sent over 100 ship
with 3,000 soldiers to invade Ryukyu.Ryukyu was defeated and soon becom Japans colony.Japan made Ryukyu its tributary and coutrolled its business trade with China until the Ryukyu kingdom became part of Japan.
After 1868 A.D.,Japan reformed its own country and strted
to bring in the western military affairs. In order to intensify Japan itself,Japan abrogated the tributary and officially made Ryukyu a part of Japan. from then on, Ryukyu was no longer a foreign land to Japan but an inner land.
In 1879,at the time that Japan took over Ryukyu,which was
also the time the Ryukyu fought for its independence,the Ryukyu officials sent the statement of wanting to be an independent country to Japan,China,and to those ambassadors from other countries who were in Japan,which caused an international issue.
First the representative of China went to negotiate with
Japanese officials but faild because of his shoutcomings at
Speaking. Secondly,when the fomer American president,Grant,
met with the Japanese Emperor,he proposed to splite Ryukyu
from Japan. The third,Japans Foreign Affairs Department to
split Ryukyu from Japan. The third ,Japans Foreign Affairs
Department,had also negotiated with Chinas ambassador in Japan. They both agreed to split Ryukyu from Japan. But something Happened and caused unexpected result whith made Ryukyus Independence impossible.
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