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標題: 高樓住宅模板材料最佳化可行性之實務研究
Feasible Analytics for Optimization of Formwork in High-rise Building
作者: 李明忠
Li, Ming-Chung
Contributors: 謝孟勳
土木工程學系所
關鍵字: 模板工程;組模計畫;整數規劃;基因演算法;模板材料;最佳化
Formwork Assembly;Two-Dimensional Cutting;Packing;Integer Programming;Genetic Algorithms
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-07 11:20:34 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 土木工程學系所
摘要: 目前高樓住宅林立,各地新建案也不斷推出,建築物之鋼筋混凝土構造占74.14%仍為最多。在高樓建築工程進度裡,結構體工程之工期占總工期約70%,模板工程工期占結構體工期進度約60%,故單一工項模板工程就占總工程工期約40%,對進度影響相當大,施工成本卻只占總工程款約6%,使模板工程被視為常見普通的工項,一般管理決策者並不重視。組模技術參差不齊,模板材料過度裁切,造成模板材料的浪費。如何將一片片模板組合成結構所需形狀與尺寸,達到模板材料最佳化是複雜的議題。
本研究針對高樓住宅樓板模板組合,為達到模板材料最佳化,結合「整數規劃」與「基因演算法」,研擬出一套「組模計畫」最佳模式(Formwork Assembly Optimization,簡稱FAO)。
FAO實際應用於施工中的高樓住宅建築工程,驗證FAO之效益並記錄實際執行過程與結果,本實例顯示單一層樓板FAO能節省模板材料10.14%之效益,本研究之成果可供日後採用FAO的參考依據。
Approximately 70 percent of the overall high-building construction schedule is reported by Formwork Engineering, which carries significantly weights in the construction project, while about 60 percent of the overall schedule is reported in the structured construction. Therefore, Formwork Engineering has by far the most considerable influence-more than one-third of the overall construction schedule.
As a result of the shortage of manpower, inappropriate module technology, and over-cutting materials, the increasing cost and delaying schedule are resulted in during formwork assembly. Improving the program of formwork assembly by cutting and combining the overall templates before grouting from pieces of original templates are the tough research subject.
The Formwork Assembly Optimization (FAO) included two step based on the formwork assembly in the construction. First, exposed forms were put into a designed floor in the same direction and integer programming was used to complete the optimization of a trim at different sizes of X and Y edges. Second, genetic algorithms were exercised to search an approaching optimum solution of a not laying floor.
In Zhubei city of Taiwan, FAO was applied successfully to a twenty-seven floors building with 23,992.11 square meters. With this FAO result, material cost can be effectively reduced at least 10.14 percent and an economic proposal of single floor form paving can be provided to contractors to place and trim the templates.
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