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標題: 辛稼軒詞「託喻」研究
A Research on Kinds of Women and Flowers as the Symbols in Iambic Verse from Xin Jiaxuan
作者: 吳美玲
Wu, Mei- Ling
Contributors: 林淑貞
Shu-Chen Lin
中國文學系所
關鍵字: 辛棄疾;託喻;豪放派;歸正人;以彼喻此
Hsin Ch’i-Chi;Symbols;Bold Faction;Guizhengren;Metaphor
日期: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-11-07 11:57:15 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 中國文學系所
摘要: 經歷靖康之難的南宋朝廷並未因為受屈辱而覺醒,稼軒南歸時,懷濟世之志且振翅欲飛,擁有儒家積極入世的精神,但在位者無心用兵,權臣誤國,朝廷對「歸正人」亦心懷忌憚而無法完全信任,於是創作成為稼軒傾吐積累已久心緒的媒介。在威權政治氛圍下,詞人將情志隱藏於作品中,讀者閱讀時無法立即完全掌握作品旨意。因此,本文即以「託喻」為題,擬探究其中奧秘。所謂託喻,即是間接的表意手法,意象如同暗碼,其意義帶有晦澀不明的色彩。本論文研究方法以「文本」(Text)分析為主,並以文獻探討方式,徵引歷代資料加以說明。
論文先從作者、文本及讀者等三個不同視域探討「託喻」的求意方式,對作品的解讀更多元,詮釋不再單一化。稼軒詞作數量頗多且內容多元,論文擇取女性及花作為探討分析的對象,將詞人所選用意象的意涵,予以分類、歸納,剖析詞人藉女子及花間接表述其心志與情感的弦外之音。寫女子的怨情、遭遇曲折地吐露其政治上的不遇,寫花的精神以喻示其不屈及操守。政治際遇使其愁腸百結,但愛國之意志卻堅定不移,欲有所為卻不能實現的忠憤寄託在詞作裡。復次,外界的物觸動人們情感,詞人以物描摹情志,但在描繪過程中不能僅局限在物的形貌,而要超脫形像、著重物的精神以寫人的情志,此似物非我或似我非物的表現手法,達到了藉形喻神的效果。稼軒無論在仕進或廢退,對國家前途念茲在茲,但長期隱居使他有些意志消沉,仕與隱之間的矛盾、理想與現實之間的差距,一再衝擊他的內心。
由辛稼軒詞「託喻」研究中,可歸結出幾個特點:一、創作源頭來自於理想與現實的衝突激盪而成。二、以意象寄託其幽微情感。三、稼軒「託喻」技巧之運用強化了所要表述的意涵。四、男性文人情感藉由女性迂曲達意。五、託喻詞求意三種進路所呈現的豐富涵義。六、仕與隱之間的內心矛盾。
經由深入探究稼軒託喻詞,了解詞人壯志難酬的悲慨,不念己身之得失,乃憂國勢之興衰。託喻為曲折委婉地表述方式,可見稼軒雄渾豪邁以外另一種婉約細膩的風貌。
Through Jingkang Crisis, the Southern Song Dynasty isn’t awake after suffering an insult of having to surrender. When Xin Jiaxuan comes over and gives allegiance to the Southern Song Dynasty, he hopes to benefit the world and perk up. He has the spirit of joining worldly affairs with Confucious positive thougts, but the authorities are too weak to resist the enemy. Because powreful ministers spoil the country and the suspicious authorities don’t trust “Guizhengren”, Xin Jiaxuan pours out his feelings by writing. Under the totalitarian control, the poet conceals his emotions and ambition in his works, so the reader couldn’t understand the meaning of the works. Therefore, the meaning of the symbol of women and flowers will be shown by this thesis. The symbol is the way to express indirectly, and the image is ambiguous as the secret code. This research is based on text analysis, literature review and references.

In the beginning, to study how to catch the purpose of poems by views of the author, the text and the reader will enrich the implications of the works. There are many and various kinds of Xin Jiaxuan’s works. Women and flowers are chosen as the symbols to investigate, and this research utilizes classification and induction to analyze the implied meaning. The poet conveys his misfortune by women tragedy indirectly, and expresses his disobedience and integrity by the character of flowers. His political encounter makes him sad, but he is very patriotic, and his loyalty and anger are committed to writing. In addition, people are moved by objects, and poets describe their ambition by objects. However, the spitit of the objects is emphasized, and poets couldn’t be limited by the appearance of the objects. This ambiguous way of writing promotes the communication of purposes. Xin Jiaxuan is very concerned about the prosperity of country during his political career or retirement from public life, but he is disappointed after long reclusive life.

This research suggests some findings. First, the inspiration comes from the conflict between his ideal and cruel reality. Secondly, kinds of symbols express Xin Jiaxuan’s veiled feelings. Thirdly, this technique in writing strengthens what Xin wants to express. Fourthly, male poets describe their adversity through women’s emotion. Fifthly, more explanations are exposed by the three ways of searching for the inner meaning. Lastly, the contradiction between the poet’s official career and reclusive life.

By analyzing a research on kinds of women and flowers as the symbol in iambic verse from Xin Jiaxuan, it’s difficult to fulfill the ambitions of Xin Jiaxuan. Though he is upset, he still cares about the Southern Song Dynasty. The symbol in the poem is an indirect way to write, and we could find the characteristics of Xin Jiaxuan’s poems are not only bold but graceful.
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