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標題: 運命的播弄與對治──黃春明小說的困境書寫
Teasing of Fate and How to Tackle It ── A Study of the Writing of Dilemma in Chun-Ming Huang’s Works
作者: 李嘉佩
Li, Chia-Pei
Contributors: 林淑貞
關鍵字: 現代小說;經濟殖民;社會關懷;土地倫理;人物性格
modern fiction;economic colonization;social care;land ethic;character personality
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-07 11:57:19 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 中國文學系所
摘要: 本論文旨在探討黃春明小說困境書寫的內容與小說人物對治困境的方式。黃春明從1956年發表的第一篇小說〈清道伕的孩子〉到2008年最新發表的小說〈有一隻懷錶〉,無不展現對於人群、社會與自然的關懷。本論文將研究主題設定於困境書寫,以社會學的知識為主、心理學知識與小說理論為輔,探求困境書寫的目的與意義。本文在二至四章分析小說所呈現的三大困境:在「個人困境」中,人物因為生存條件不足、精神生活困頓與親人缺席的因素陷入痛苦與矛盾;在「社會困境」中,產業結構的改變造成農業夕陽化,西方文明堂而皇之地走入台灣社會,導致傳統文化被迫退場;在「自然困境」中,黃春明認為人為的破壞是改變生態環境的主因,從而暗示人們必須重視土地倫理。在第五章探討「困境構設的方式與小說的藝術手法」,作者利用「悖逆結局的安排」強化困境帶給人物的衝擊,「人物的內心獨白」則能夠展現人物心靈的真正面貌。在藝術手法上,象徵技巧能夠包裝困境,深化困境在小說中的意義,對比的運用能夠烘托人物在困境下的窘迫。第六章所探討的是「困境下的對治之道與人物精神的展演」,人物因為貧窮與無知,慣於將人生的苦難歸究於命運,無論是順命或是抗命,都表現出人物對於生存的執著。人物對治困境的方式有「突圍與抵抗」、「承擔與接受」、「掙扎與陷溺」,人物的性格並非一成不變,亦能因為時空條件的轉變而改變對治困境的態度。對治的過程中,人物即使帶著世俗標準下的鄙陋形象,依舊展演出令人欽佩的精神與生命態度。作者書寫困境的目的是解決困境,「孩子」是困境的鑰匙,唯有教育出人格健全的下一代,土地才有重生的希望。化「困境」為「桃花源」的不二法門是凝聚眾人的力量,一起成為「土地的守護者」,這是黃春明的書寫困境的終極目標。第七章的結論則是歸納本文的研究成果,並且指出未來研究方向與建議。
This study aims to discuss the writing of dilemma in Chun-Ming Huang’s works and the ways the characters handle the difficulties. Hung showed his cares for90 people, society and nature in every one of his works, from The Child of an Ashman (1956) to A Pocket Watch (2008). The present study will focus on the writing of dilemma. Based on sociology, psychology and novel theories, the research will explore the purpose and meaning of the writing of dilemma. After a brief introduction, Chapter Two, Three and Four analyze three major dilemmas. The characteristics struggling because of insufficiency of materials, lack of value of life and absence of family members are under discussion in the first part, “Personal Difficulties”. Second, “Social Difficulties” describes how traditional culture was forced to fade away because of the changes in industrial structure led by economic colonization. Third, in terms of nature predicament, Huang thought it was the people that caused a lot of damage to ecological environment. He suggested people should respect the mother earth. In Chapter Five, the researcher talked about the ways Huang organized the dilemma and the rhetoric he employed in the novels. He stressed the impacts on the characters by reversing the conflict. He also showed the way the characters felt with their monologue. In terms of the rhetoric, both the dilemma and the affliction were intensified by symbols and contrasts. In Chapter Six, the researcher addressed how characters faced the difficulties and how they dealt with the problems. Because of poverty and innocence, the characters were used to blaming the disasters on the fate. However, no matter they gave up on fate or not, they kept walking with persistence. Their characteristics changed with time. Three common ways they fought with fate are as follow: to make a breakthrough, to bear up under affliction and to struggle for living. In the process of dealing with problems, they showed admiring attitudes towards lives despite being despised. Huang’s purpose of dilemma of writing is to solve the problems. “Children” are the keys to the questions. The rebirth of land is only possible when we make the next generation strong-minded. The only way to turn a dark night into the bright future is to consolidate the strength of people to guard our home, our land. This is the ultimate goal expressed in each of Huang’s works. The conclusion of the study was summarized in Chapter Seven. So were the suggestions for future research.
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