|摘要: || 陳明水向來被歸於江右學派中強調修證工夫一系，於良知本體的體認以戒懼謹獨為要，將知幾與慎獨合而為一，確認人能在本心發動處體悟本心。強調在起心動念的幾微處察識妄念造作的誠意研幾之功，含括本體之中、已發之和，以圓融本體與工夫為主要概念。|
Chen MingShuei who emphasized practice and achievement effort was regarded as one of the member of the School of JiangYou. He treated prudence, vigilance, carefulness, and solitude was the most important attitude for an apprentice who was trying to realize the body of the Conscience. He combined two method of ethical practice, knowing motivations and being rigorous in solitude, to ensure people could realize the Conscience while it activated. In other word, he paid attention to the happening of the faint consciousness and observing where the improper thought came. He used the method of clarifying the ambition and examining motivations to explain the stillness of Conscience and how it activated peacefully. Consequently, we could summarized Chen MingShuei’s main idea of his philosophy was to harmonize the Ontology and the method of effort.
This thesis discourses the three stages of changes in MingShuei’s philosophy and tries to compare with the history of YangMing’s thinking in order to analyze the thread of how MingShuei create his Ontology and Theory of Effort.
Secondly, this thesis discusses Chen MingShuei’s opinion of the content of the Conscience. On the one hand, he defined the Conscience as ‘the heart telling right from wrong.’ And then when people study the phenomena of their own Conscience to acquire knowledge, a.k.a. Gewuzhizhi, they can find how their Conscience knows things. On the other hand, he defined the Conscience as ‘the heart in the childhood which has been told by MengZi. It means the Conscience is pure without defilement and natural-born. So whenever people study the phenomena of their own Conscience to acquire knowledge, their selfishness cannot affect the consequences. As a result, Chen MingShuei’s philosophy has many ways to explain and how he interpreted the meaning of the Conscience also corresponded to YangMings’ original definition. As for the effort of clarifying the ambition, he believed that one should be rigorous in solitude to reduce his own selfishness. By doing this, one will let his own Conscience work naturally. He used the method of knowing and examining the motivation to connect both sides of Noumenon and Effort.When the Conscience becomes still and sensitive at the same time it cannot be distinguished if activated or not. Only when one is in this moment, there he can find the effort of the Conscience. MingShuei explained how people keep the Conscience activated and how does the Conscience work by the theory of ‘Noumenon and its work have the same origin.’ After evalutating the procedure of self-cultivation such as ‘studying the phenomena of the Conscience to acquire knowledge’ and ‘clarifying the ambition,’ he believed that actually effort is more important than simply realizing the Conscience.Therefore, in daily life one should keep doing the right things, avoiding the wrong, and remembering that the Conscience introspects every moment, he will realize the Conscience after all. By succeeding YangMing’s ‘Effort equals to Noumenon and Noumenon equals to Effort’ philosophy, Chen MingShuei thought Effort was greater than Noumenon, hence his thinking was base on his practical and meaningful life.
In the end, the thesis discuss Chen MingShuei’s opinion that he believed self-cultivation and political activities were the same thing. And we can treat this as just how his philosophy applied in his real life.