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標題: 陳明水思想研究
The study of Chen Mingshui’s thought
作者: 陳盈靜
Chen, Ying-Ching
Contributors: 劉錦賢
中國文學系所
關鍵字: 陳明水;陽明後學;知幾;良知修證;誠意;江右王學
Chen Ming-Shuei;YangMing scholars;knowing activations;practice and achieve the conscience;clarifying the ambition;school of JiangYou YangMing
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-07 11:57:23 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 中國文學系所
摘要:   陳明水向來被歸於江右學派中強調修證工夫一系,於良知本體的體認以戒懼謹獨為要,將知幾與慎獨合而為一,確認人能在本心發動處體悟本心。強調在起心動念的幾微處察識妄念造作的誠意研幾之功,含括本體之中、已發之和,以圓融本體與工夫為主要概念。
  本篇論文細述明水的三次學思變易,並與陽明的學思歷程相比較,意圖探析明水之所以含括本體、工夫兩面向的思想脈絡。接著討論陳明水對良知本體的體認內容:將良知本體定義為知善知惡之心,進而在致知格物時強調良知主體的能知;另一方面,陳明水認為本心即是孟子所言的赤子之心,純粹無雜染,天生而成,所以致知格物時,亦不得添加一毫私智人欲。陳明水的思想不只有單一面向的詮釋性,對良知本體的體認大體上也不離陽明原意,其於誠意工夫,則以謹獨去私意,達用以任自然流行,在本體與工夫的兩端,尋得以知幾研幾聯繫的方法。在寂感一如、不分已發未發處談本心工夫,以體用一原來說明本心的持守與作用。陳明水對於格物、誠意等修身過程,終究是重實功甚於只悟本心,是故在意所著的事行上,不廢遷善改過、為善去惡的工夫,只要能明白逐事省克時是良知主意,依舊能了悟本體。陳明水在工夫即本體、本體即工夫的陽明立境上,偏向了以工夫即本體,進而開展出深具切實落腳於生命中的思想。最後論及陳明水視理身、理政為一事,正是其工夫即本體義的全然展現。
  Chen MingShuei who emphasized practice and achievement effort was regarded as one of the member of the School of JiangYou. He treated prudence, vigilance, carefulness, and solitude was the most important attitude for an apprentice who was trying to realize the body of the Conscience. He combined two method of ethical practice, knowing motivations and being rigorous in solitude, to ensure people could realize the Conscience while it activated. In other word, he paid attention to the happening of the faint consciousness and observing where the improper thought came. He used the method of clarifying the ambition and examining motivations to explain the stillness of Conscience and how it activated peacefully. Consequently, we could summarized Chen MingShuei’s main idea of his philosophy was to harmonize the Ontology and the method of effort.
  This thesis discourses the three stages of changes in MingShuei’s philosophy and tries to compare with the history of YangMing’s thinking in order to analyze the thread of how MingShuei create his Ontology and Theory of Effort.
  Secondly, this thesis discusses Chen MingShuei’s opinion of the content of the Conscience. On the one hand, he defined the Conscience as ‘the heart telling right from wrong.’ And then when people study the phenomena of their own Conscience to acquire knowledge, a.k.a. Gewuzhizhi, they can find how their Conscience knows things. On the other hand, he defined the Conscience as ‘the heart in the childhood which has been told by MengZi. It means the Conscience is pure without defilement and natural-born. So whenever people study the phenomena of their own Conscience to acquire knowledge, their selfishness cannot affect the consequences. As a result, Chen MingShuei’s philosophy has many ways to explain and how he interpreted the meaning of the Conscience also corresponded to YangMings’ original definition. As for the effort of clarifying the ambition, he believed that one should be rigorous in solitude to reduce his own selfishness. By doing this, one will let his own Conscience work naturally. He used the method of knowing and examining the motivation to connect both sides of Noumenon and Effort.When the Conscience becomes still and sensitive at the same time it cannot be distinguished if activated or not. Only when one is in this moment, there he can find the effort of the Conscience. MingShuei explained how people keep the Conscience activated and how does the Conscience work by the theory of ‘Noumenon and its work have the same origin.’ After evalutating the procedure of self-cultivation such as ‘studying the phenomena of the Conscience to acquire knowledge’ and ‘clarifying the ambition,’ he believed that actually effort is more important than simply realizing the Conscience.Therefore, in daily life one should keep doing the right things, avoiding the wrong, and remembering that the Conscience introspects every moment, he will realize the Conscience after all. By succeeding YangMing’s ‘Effort equals to Noumenon and Noumenon equals to Effort’ philosophy, Chen MingShuei thought Effort was greater than Noumenon, hence his thinking was base on his practical and meaningful life.
  In the end, the thesis discuss Chen MingShuei’s opinion that he believed self-cultivation and political activities were the same thing. And we can treat this as just how his philosophy applied in his real life.
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