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標題: 魏晉南北朝人性論研究
A Study of The Theory about Human-Nature in Wei,Jin Northern and Southern Dynasties
作者: 蔡金昌
Tsai, Chin-Chang
Contributors: 林文彬
Wen-Pin Lin
中國文學系所
關鍵字: 魏晉南北朝;玄學;人性論;佛性;道性
Wei-Jin Northern and Southern Dynasties‏Metaphysics;Theory about Human-Nature;Buddha-Nature;Human-Nature of Taoism
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-07 11:57:47 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 中國文學系所
摘要:   在中國思想史的各階段中,魏晉南北朝上承先秦下啟隋唐,為思想史的中繼時期,此時雖以玄學為大宗,但佛教與道教亦同時建立其理論思想並蓬勃發展。人性議題從先秦開始就成為思想家所側重的討論面向,經過兩漢氣化、魏晉本體化發展到南北朝時,有逐漸趨向以心識為主體的人性思惟,這也成為隋唐、宋明心性人性論之根基。
  本文之探討以先秦人性思想為開端,定立往後中國人性論的主軸議題,並就兩漢氣化觀到玄學貴無論、崇有論與至虛論的進程檢視傳統人性思想的演變狀況。加以魏晉南北朝佛教般若學、涅槃學、瑜伽行學在人性論的基礎上開出的佛性思惟,及道教於此潮流中亦漸形成的道性思想,由是以見中國人性範疇之拓展。在聖人觀方面突破傳統成德致聖的唯一徑路,使得人格的最高理想價值不只侷限於世間的德性圓滿,出世間的成佛、成道實擴大並超出了傳統人性思惟下的聖人格局。相對的,聖人的內在依據是在德性之上開顯超越於德性的佛性與道性,使得人性的內涵更加深廣。更由詮釋的角度收攝傳統氣化論、本體論的架構,透過對心識的重視,產生以心性為主軸的人性論趨勢,表現出魏晉南北朝人性論對傳統人性論的繼承及轉化,成為此時期的重要特色,在中國人性思想史的發展上具有重大的意義。
  China Ideology History has different kind of status just like Wei-Jin Northern and Southern Dynasties‏. It carried on the Xian-Qin period and created a new Sui-Tang era. This became one of the most important history moment in China. Now people even paid a lot of attention to Metaphysics but Buddhism and Taoism were built their own theories and mind-thinking at the same time. They had development progressing. The issue of Human-Nature started to become a main discussion among the thinkers. After developing and growing of Liang-Han (Gasification) and Wei-Jin (Ontological) theories, it was slowly moved to Human-Nature thinking with heart of understanding. This also turned into basic knowledge of Sui-Tang and Song-Ming Human-Nature in minded.
  First, this thesis is trying to make a research about Xian-Qing Human-Nature at the beginning. Then, figures out the ways of deciding the main topic of China Human-Nature theories. On the other hand, the writer will start to talk about Gasification of Liang-Han and then continue with the matters of Metaphysics such as some people liked to advocate the process of nothing, everything until the virtual. This can view the evolvement situation of traditional Human-Nature thinking. Besides, Buddhism in Wei-Jin Northern and Southern Dynasties tried to develop Buddha''s thinking through the knowledge of Wisdom, Nirvana and Yoga-movement. Taoism also followed the trend and became one of the main mental thinking. The range of China Human-Nature became bigger. At the observation of saint, the only traditional way of those people which had to equip their morality was started to breakthrough. The highest of ideal and value personality were not only just limited with the fulfilled morality in the reality or started to realize to become a buddha and grow a juicy fruit to transcend the Human-Nature traditional thinking of the saint structure. The basic identity of saint was to show his morality without the reflection of Buddhism and Taoism. It made the meaning of Human-Nature become deeper. The point of view and explanation all gathered the traditional system of Gasification, the build-up of Ontological and the importance of heart within understanding. Everyone started to follow their mind and proved that the Human-Nature in Wei-Jin Northern and Southern Dynasties inherited and changed the traditional theories before. This was a main characteristic which brought the special meaning to the development of China Human-Nature History.
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