《水男孩》(The Water-Babies: A Fairy Tale for a Land-Baby)是察爾斯．濟司禮(Charles Kingsley)為五歲的兒子格林維爾．亞瑟(Grenville Arthur)所寫的童書，然而，這本看似幽默又不合理的童書故事中卻蘊涵更深層的意義與文學價值，換言之，是對於當代許多議題如社會、科學、教育等的檢視與反思。本論文主要探究察爾斯．濟司禮的《水男孩》中兒童和童年之於成人的意義、當代科學論述，與其個人的自然神學。本篇論文主要分為三章。第一章主要是從巴赫汀(M. M. Bakhtin)的《時空型》(chronotope)概念出發並探討其文學意義和價值，和時間與空間之不可分割性，進而呈現人物的形象。第二章著重在文本分析並探討濟司禮對於當代科學論述看法，如達爾文的進化論等。對於濟司禮而言，科學雖有其侷限性，但可以進一步闡釋其自然神學概念。第三章旨在討論主角湯姆(Tom)的身體，一為勞動的身體和變形後的水嬰孩身體並分別加以論述。第四章著重於追溯兒童與童年之概念在文學及歷史上是如何被討論，找出兒童和童年之於成人的意義與價值。最後，冀望本論文讓讀者透過濟司禮對於自然的崇敬與科學的反思，讓讀者重新看待自身所處的世界、自然和反思當代科學論述。 Charles Kingsley’s The Water-Babies: A Fairy Tale for a Land-Baby (1863) was written for his five-year-old son, Grenville Arthur. However, it contains both Kingsley’s humorous, nonsensical parodies and his profound messages for readers. The objective of this paper is to explore Kingsley’s ideal child and what is behind this ideal child. This paper is divided into three parts. In the First chapter, Bakhtin’s idea of chronotope is introduced and applied to the reading of the novel. The second chapter focuses on textual analysis and indicates Kingsley’s reflections on contemporary scientific thoughts and divine nature. The third chapter deals with the issue of Tom’s different bodies, including a laboring body as a child sweeper and a transformed new-born body as a water-baby. Then the final chapter is aimed to trace back the issue how the child and childhood are perceived in history and literature. This thesis therefore offers Kingsley’s perspectives over science, evolution theory, education, child, childhood, etc., which are woven into The Water-Babies, so that a more comprehensive Victorian scenario is presented to the contemporary readers.