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標題: 蘭嶼紀錄片的主體性建構與反思
The Construction of Subjectivity in Lanyu Documentaries and Its Reflection
作者: 簡毓群
Chien, Yu-Chun
Contributors: 邱貴芬
Kuei-Fen Chiu
台灣文學與跨國文化研究所
關鍵字: 達悟族;紀錄片;攝影行為;主體性;在地性;性別視角;反思
the Tao;documentary film;photography;subjectivity;localization;gender viewpoints;reflect
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-07 13:04:04 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 台灣文學與跨國文化研究所
摘要: 本碩論探討蘭嶼紀錄片的掌鏡者與達悟族主體性建構之間的發展關係。蘭嶼達悟族「主體性」的覺醒來自於集體對執政強權行為的反抗,這種集體反抗行為最早出現在1970年代達悟人對觀光攝影所發展出的索費攝影和反制攝影,可謂主體性的意識覺醒;再者從1982年臺灣本島核廢料開始貯存蘭嶼迄今,引發長期的反核廢運動,成為達悟族繼觀光攝影後轉為主要且強烈的反抗象徵。
1990年代中後期,業務型或消費型中、小型攝影機的問世,使得紀錄片的攝製成本及技術門檻大幅降低,外加公共電視台、原住民族電視台、民間單位、大專院校及私人等影音訓練課程、合作案或補助案等資源相繼湧進蘭嶼,促使部分達悟青年開始思考影像傳播的力量及可能性,並透過與部分臺灣本島影像工作者締結「夥伴關係」,生產出達悟人具主導權或互為主體的紀錄片,成為訴求反核廢、爭取醫護資源及建構文化主體性的有效方法。
再則本碩論整理蘭嶼紀錄片時,發現攝製主題因為性別視角的不同而有明顯的差異,男性導演耽溺於傳統的飛魚文化追尋,女性導演則把觀照傾注於蘭嶼現實的弱勢關懷;特別在女性達悟導演身上,她們多半透過議題影像的傳播與大眾對話、號召內外資源,抑或記錄達悟婦女於文化勞動的重要奉獻價值,呈現達悟文化兩性之間合作共享的社會模式,建構完整的達悟文化主體性,也建構出達悟族的女性主體。
2000年開始,蘭嶼「在地性」達悟族導演的誕生,她(他)們掌握有紀錄片的攝製主導權,視為繼1990年代族人書寫原鄉之主體性建構的再進化。不過在2010年後,由達悟人主導攝製的蘭嶼紀錄片中,已出現數部迎合「主流社群」並帶有消費自身文化疑慮的紀錄片產生,值得達悟族影像工作者警惕及反思。
This study is aimed at discussing the development and relationship between the documentary film producer of Orchid Island and the subjectivity of the Tao. The Tao’s awareness of their subjectivity is derived from their rebellion against the ruling authority. This group rebellion behavior appeared in the 1970s when the Tao developed paid photography and anti-photography to protest against tourism photography and it may be considered an awareness of subjectivity. On the other hand, the nuclear waste produced in Taiwan has been stored in Orchid Island since 1982, causing the local residents to start a long-term anti-nuclear movement. Since then, the Tao has become a strong and main symbol of rebellion.
In the mid of 1990s, the introduction of professional or consumer cameras made documentary filming less expensive and less difficult. In addition, organizations and institutions in the public and private sectors like Taiwan Public Television Service, Taiwan Indigenous TV, colleges and universities provided the Orchid Island with various resources such as filming training courses and funding. Therefore, some Tao youths started to consider the power and possibility of communication arts. They wished to enter a partnership with some Taiwanese video-art creators to produce documentary films dominated by the Tao to serve as an effective means of anti-nuclear movement, applying for better medical and health care resources, and constructing the subjectivity of Tao culture.
When compiling the documentary films of Orchid Island, this study discovers that male and female film directors seem to prefer very different topics due to various gender viewpoints. For example, male directors tend to show strong interests in traditional flying fish culture, while their female counterparts focus more on practical care for the minority group in Orchid Island. Female Tao directors seem to be particularly fond of communicating with the general public through images to call for domestic and overseas resources and presenting the importance of Tao women to their culture and labor society. Their works show a cooperative social pattern organized by both males and females and construct the subjectivity of Tao culture as well as Tao women.
Since 2000, local Tao film directors have started to dominate the production of Orchid Island documentary films. This may be thought of as the second advance of Tao people’s subjectivity after the 1990s. Nevertheless, some Tao film directors appear to produce works to please the taste of the main stream after 2010. This phenomenon may cause Tao video-art creators to reflect and think.
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