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標題: 蘭嶼紀錄片的主體性建構與反思
The Construction of Subjectivity in Lanyu Documentaries and Its Reflection
作者: 簡毓群
Chien, Yu-Chun
Contributors: 邱貴芬
Kuei-Fen Chiu
關鍵字: 達悟族;紀錄片;攝影行為;主體性;在地性;性別視角;反思
the Tao;documentary film;photography;subjectivity;localization;gender viewpoints;reflect
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-07 13:04:04 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 台灣文學與跨國文化研究所
摘要: 本碩論探討蘭嶼紀錄片的掌鏡者與達悟族主體性建構之間的發展關係。蘭嶼達悟族「主體性」的覺醒來自於集體對執政強權行為的反抗,這種集體反抗行為最早出現在1970年代達悟人對觀光攝影所發展出的索費攝影和反制攝影,可謂主體性的意識覺醒;再者從1982年臺灣本島核廢料開始貯存蘭嶼迄今,引發長期的反核廢運動,成為達悟族繼觀光攝影後轉為主要且強烈的反抗象徵。
This study is aimed at discussing the development and relationship between the documentary film producer of Orchid Island and the subjectivity of the Tao. The Tao’s awareness of their subjectivity is derived from their rebellion against the ruling authority. This group rebellion behavior appeared in the 1970s when the Tao developed paid photography and anti-photography to protest against tourism photography and it may be considered an awareness of subjectivity. On the other hand, the nuclear waste produced in Taiwan has been stored in Orchid Island since 1982, causing the local residents to start a long-term anti-nuclear movement. Since then, the Tao has become a strong and main symbol of rebellion.
In the mid of 1990s, the introduction of professional or consumer cameras made documentary filming less expensive and less difficult. In addition, organizations and institutions in the public and private sectors like Taiwan Public Television Service, Taiwan Indigenous TV, colleges and universities provided the Orchid Island with various resources such as filming training courses and funding. Therefore, some Tao youths started to consider the power and possibility of communication arts. They wished to enter a partnership with some Taiwanese video-art creators to produce documentary films dominated by the Tao to serve as an effective means of anti-nuclear movement, applying for better medical and health care resources, and constructing the subjectivity of Tao culture.
When compiling the documentary films of Orchid Island, this study discovers that male and female film directors seem to prefer very different topics due to various gender viewpoints. For example, male directors tend to show strong interests in traditional flying fish culture, while their female counterparts focus more on practical care for the minority group in Orchid Island. Female Tao directors seem to be particularly fond of communicating with the general public through images to call for domestic and overseas resources and presenting the importance of Tao women to their culture and labor society. Their works show a cooperative social pattern organized by both males and females and construct the subjectivity of Tao culture as well as Tao women.
Since 2000, local Tao film directors have started to dominate the production of Orchid Island documentary films. This may be thought of as the second advance of Tao people’s subjectivity after the 1990s. Nevertheless, some Tao film directors appear to produce works to please the taste of the main stream after 2010. This phenomenon may cause Tao video-art creators to reflect and think.
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