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National Chung Hsing University Institutional Repository - NCHUIR > 農業暨自然資源學院 > 水土保持學系 > 依資料類型分類 > 碩博士論文 >  集水區反應器分析、生物碳儲存生態功能及災防與環境生態復育之集水區永續性研究

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nchuir.lib.nchu.edu.tw/handle/309270000/152252

標題: 集水區反應器分析、生物碳儲存生態功能及災防與環境生態復育之集水區永續性研究
Watershed Reactor Analysis, CO2 Eco-function and Threshold Management Study
作者: 蔡大偉
Tsai, David Da-Wei
Contributors: 陳鴻烈
水土保持學系所
關鍵字: 生態永續性;反應器分析;藻類生態位;集水區門檻值管理;永續性集水區管理;二氧化碳管理
ecological sustainability;reactor analysis;algal niche;threshold method;watershed management;CO2 management
日期: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-11-07 13:17:36 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 水土保持學系所
摘要: 對於促進國家永續發展的目標,“全方位集水區經營”為現有科技中最可靠及最可行的科技。本研究嘗試應用以生態系統動態平衡理論為基礎之整合型科技來協助我們完成多目標型的集水區管理。研究中共有三個與集水區經營相關的主要研究主題:

(1) 水力學:應用反應器分析於集水區自然水體水力分析:藉由本研究結果可證明high rate pond (HRP)具有柱塞流(plug-flow)的特性,與自然河川具有相似的性質,因此可以被應用於實驗室尺寸的河川研究。而在反應器區分標準的研究中,本研究使用現有的重要水力指標來建立可成功分類所有反應器的標準;透過這套標準,我們可清楚的分辨出反應器具有柱塞流(plug-flow)或是完全混合流(completely mixed)的理想型水力特性,藉此可建立實驗室的生態模型以協助了解自然界的複雜水體。此外,本研究應用創新的”距離法”來解決反應器分析領域中的經典問題—以不同類型反應器之混合與短流程度來做水力學比較,研究成果證實”距離法”可成功應用在不同的水力指標以比較出所有類型反應器間之不同程度;精確的定義短流程度可用來幫助改善反應器設計與提升集水區管理策略之執行效率。

(2) 初級生產者:集水區中藻類固定二氧化碳功能之潛力評估:本研究創立使用自然水體作為藻類培養介質來評估其二氧化碳固定生態功能之研究,研究結果可整合於集水區經營,應用自然生態工程作為減碳管理之重要選項。實驗室監測資料指出本研究所使用的HRP與完全混合型反應器(CSTR)均可達到高藻類產量。二氧化碳吸收率分別可達162 mg/L/day (HRP) 與 175 mg/L/day (CSTR);並且可達成非常高且非常穩定的吸收效率:123 % (HRP)與131% (CSTR)。根據以上結果,可證實若可以配合集水區土地利用管理來應用藻類之高效率二氧化碳吸收能力,未來將十分具有固碳潛力。另外,從藻類各項二氧化碳吸收指標之數學分析結果來看,可證明在本研究所創立的模仿自然生態型的設計,其二氧化碳吸收效率遠高於現有文獻中人工型的設計,主要原因是我們的設計是直接應用自然界的生態功能機制。除此之外,本研究針對反應器中的生長環境條件進行分析,發現HRP除了溶氧濃度以外,其他環境指標皆與自然水體相仿,證實HRP可以成功複製自然生態的環境。既然所有實驗數據均指出本研究所應用的淡水藻類具有極優異的二氧化碳吸收效率,本研究認為淡水生態系可能可以對生態學中一個重要謎題提供關鍵線索,也就是碳循環中的未知碳儲存來源,分析數據後發現淡水藻類碳儲存量與未知碳儲存來源數據大致吻合,此為本研究重要發現之一。

(3) 具生態功能的集水區管理:兼具災難預防、環境品質管理與二氧化碳儲存復育之集水區管理:雖然台灣因為各種自然與人文的環境因素,目前飽受各種複合型災難之苦,國家變為多災且脆弱,本研究指出可藉由集水區土地管理來大幅度改善國家的易致災性。此外,研究整理台灣的災害歷史性數據,證實過去的山坡地管理政策錯誤為造成今日災害頻率與尺度大幅增加、環境品質惡化、污染事件頻傳及生態功能碳儲存大幅減少的主要原因之一。希望未來可基於本創新研究,應用其成果來協助我們做符合生態要求的集水區經營,針對全球陸域碳循環固碳,提出最自然最可行的溫室氣體減量策略,最後可達到自然資源永續經營管理目標。
For the sustainable development, the integrated watershed management is the most authentic and practical technology to reach this goal. This study took advantage of the multidisciplinary technology to accomplish the management with multiple purposes on the basis of dynamic balancing in ecosystem. There were three focused purposes in this study related to the integrated watershed management:

(1) HYDRAULICS: reactor analysis of the water bodies in a watershed: the analyses demonstrated the plug-flow reactor (PFR) characteristics in high rate pond (HRP) to be a suitable alternative to imitate a river in lab. The differentiation criteria developed from the hydraulic index analyses could differentiate the complicated water flows in nature for the ecosystem imitation in laboratory. Moreover, this study indicated the unique and the innovative “distance method” could successfully describe the degree of short-circuiting and mixing in all type of reactors according to the short-circuiting index senses. The identification of short-circuiting level would be the key to improve reactor design and management strategy.

(2) PRIMARY PRODUCER: the potential of algal CO2 sequestration in a watershed: The utilization of natural water medium which came from water body directly without any extra nutrition addition, demonstrated the potential to adopt the algal function for CO2 bio-fixation in a watershed. Both HRP and continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) achieved the high algal biomass production. The high CO2 uptake rate of 162 mg/L/day in HRP and 175 mg/L/day in CSTR with the extremely high and stable consumption efficiency of 123 % in HRP and 131% in CSTR displayed the impressive potential of the fixation capability in a watershed through land use management. By the mathematical analyses, this study confirmed the lab systems which mimicked the ecosystem could have better uptake rates and consumption efficiencies than the general systems in literature with artificial medium because the natural process was replicated inside the lab. From the growth condition analysis, all the parameters except over-saturated oxygen of DO indicated that the HRPs were close to natural system. Furthermore, the excellent CO2 sequestration data provided a clue from the freshwater algae for the “remaining unidentified carbon sink” of an ecological mystery today.

(3) ECO-FUNCTION: disaster prevention, environmental quality control and CO2 storage by watershed management: Although Taiwan is a vulnerable and fragile country threaten by multiple hazards, this study indicated the land use management could enormously improve the vulnerability of calamities. Furthermore, the historical policy in Taiwan was proved to be the rationale to explain the tremendously increased frequency and magnitude of catastrophes, pollution and carbon storage eco-function reduction. Hopefully this innovative study would help us to know the hydraulic characteristics in a watershed better, to suggest the most proper and practical strategy for the greenhouse gas reduction of the global carbon cycle in land and to develop the proper management strategy for the sustainable use of natural resource.
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