|摘要: ||本研究旨在探討利用Bacillus spp.芽孢桿菌屬CH05、CH06及CH07菌株，來進行稻草生物分解之研究及篩選生物-機械製漿之最佳菌株。當利用Bacillus spp.芽孢桿菌屬之菌株與無添加菌株之對照組分解稻草試驗，分析重量損失與成分變化，結果顯示CH05與CH07組於7天時木質素含量可有效減少，與對照組間有顯著差異，且全纖維素含量彼此間並無顯著差異，但至第14天時木質素不再降解，而全纖維素卻有減少之現象；且試驗7天時三組之木質素對全纖維素之降低比例皆大於1，而對照組則小於1，顯示試驗組在7天的分解時間時，其木質素之降解量較全纖維素之降解量多，推論在試驗7天的微生物降解時Bacillus spp.芽孢桿菌屬之菌株可有效降解木質素，且不會額外造成全纖維素之損失，因此Bacillus spp.芽孢桿菌屬分解稻草之時間以7天為最佳。|
本研究稻草生物-機械紙漿製作基重115與160 g/m2之手抄紙，其性質測試結果，顯示相關指標參數皆分別未達CNS(Chinese National Standards )瓦楞芯紙與裱面紙板之標準；而以1:1混合稻草生物-機械與牛皮紙漿製作之基重115與160 g/m2之手抄紙，除了CH06組皆未達標準外，其餘組別依照CNS標準可個別分級為B級瓦楞芯紙與C級裱面紙板；且當機械製漿處理相當於絕乾重1公噸之稻草時，於盤磨階段CH05、CH06及CH07三組與對照組相比，分別可節省29.73、24.73及32.27 kWh之能量消耗與18.52、15.28及20.10 kg之CO2排放量；而於PFI打漿階段CH05、CH06及CH07三組與對照組相比，分別可節省13336.8、13336.8及4445.6 kWh之能量消耗與8308.83、8308.83及2769.61 kg之CO2排放量。
本研究綜合上述之試驗結果，顯示Bacillus spp.芽孢桿菌屬CH05、CH06及CH07三組菌株中，唯有CH05組同時具有較大之木質素對全纖維之降低比例與打漿過程明顯節省能量消耗，且其兩種基重之1:1混合稻草生物-機械與牛皮紙漿手抄紙，亦可分別通過CNS(Chinese National Standards )之B級瓦楞芯紙與C級裱面紙板標準，因此獲致 Bacillus spp.芽孢桿菌屬CH05組為稻草生物分解之最佳應用菌株。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of rice straw using strains CH05, CH06 and CH07 of Bacillus spp. and to evaluate the best strain for bio-mechanical pulping. After analyzing the weight loss and component change using ANOVA for the data obtained of testing 7 days, the groups CH05 and CH07 demonstrated more lignin degradation and obtained a significant difference to the control group(blank), but no significant difference of holocellulose degradation between the testing groups with Bacillus spp. and the control group was obtained. The testing results also showed that during the experimental period from the 7th to 14th day, the lignin content was no longer degraded while the holocellulose content expressed a manifest reduction. At the 7th day, the removal ratios of lignin to the holocellulose were all larger than one for the testing groups CH05, CH06 and CH07 whereas the control group was less than one, indicating that the reduction rate of lignin was faster than that of holocellulose for the testing groups. The testing groups CH05, CH06 and CH07 with Bacillus spp. could effectively degrade lignin with no extra holocellulose lost as compared to the control group during the test of the first 7 days. Consequently, the optimal time obtained for the Bacillus spp. to degrade rice straw was 7 days.
According to the testing results under CNS (Chinese National Standards ), both handsheets with basis weights 115 and 160 g/m2 of the bio-mechanical pulp of rice straw did not pass the relative parameters of properties for the corrugating medium paper and linerboard, respectively. On the other hand, except CH06 group, all the properties of handsheets of basis weights 115 and 160 g/m2 using the 1:1 mixture composed of the bio-mechanical pulp of rice straw and kraft pulp were respectively classified as level B corrugating medium paper and level C linerboard. During the treatment of mechanical pulping processes as using one ton of absolutely dried rice straw, the energy consumption saving and carbon dioxide CO2 emissions reduction of testing groups CH05, CH06 and CH07 were about 29.73, 24.73 and 32.27 kWh and 18.52, 15.28 and 20.10 kg, respectively at the disc refining stage, while at the PFI mill stage, both were about 13336.8, 13336.8 and 4445.6 kWh and 8308.83, 8308.83 and 2769.61 kg, respectively as compared to the control group.
Based on the testing results analyzed in this research, only Bacillus spp. CH05 group could hold a larger reduction rate of lignin degradation than that of holocellulose and also save tremendous energy consumption simultaneously at the PFI mill stage. Both handsheets made of basis weights 115 and 160 g/m2 using the 1:1 mixture composed of the bio-mechanical pulp of rice straw and kraft pulp could also passed the criteria of CNS standard of corrugating medium paper and linerboard, respectively as using the bio-mechanical pulp from the group CH05. Therefore, the Bacillus spp. CH05 group was the optimal group obtained in this research as the best strain used in the biodegradation for rice straw.