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標題: 考量營收分享機制下零售商之最適退貨政策
The Impact of Revenue Sharing Mechanism on Retailer’s Return Policy
作者: 顏荻
Ti-Yen
Contributors: 蕭櫓
企業管理學系所
關鍵字: 退貨政策;營收分享;退款保證
return policy;revenue sharing;money back guarantee
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-18 11:17:52 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 企業管理學系所
摘要: 退貨政策對零售商的影響已越來越大,在面對現今消費者只要對產品不滿意即可退貨的情況下,使零售商面臨到高額的退貨成本以及消費者退貨的不確定性而造成的巨額損失,因此,零售商如何在慷慨的退貨政策和利潤極大化之間取得平衡為零售商必須面對的難題。
在過去,製造商和零售商之間的承諾主要來自於由製造商先訂批發價,零售商再決定零售價之傳統合約,而現在製造商和零售商之間的合作方式則更為多元,營收分享合約即為其中之一,在營收分享合約下,只由零售商決定零售價格,然後雙方在再依據所約定的營收分享比例來分享營收,此合約在實務上已被多家公司所採用,因此,本研究欲建構一賽局模型來探討此兩種不同合約下對零售商退貨政策之影響。
本研究之結論為(1)不論在哪種合約下,產品品質對零售商退貨政策之慷慨程度皆為負向的影響,並且產品被退貨後之剩餘價值對零售商退貨政策之慷慨程度則皆為正向的影響,然而,消費者選擇購買產品後其合用的機率和消費者覺得產品不合用其效用減損的幅度在兩種合約下對零售商之影響則不相同;(2)在營收分享合約下,若消費者選擇購買產品後其合用的機率夠高,則零售商所分到的營收分享比例和零售商退貨政策之慷慨程度為正向的影響,反之,若消費者選擇購買產品後其合用的機率夠低,則零售商所分到的營收分享比例和零售商退貨政策之慷慨程度為先正後負的影響關係;(3)在營收分享合約下,若零售商所分到的營收分享比例和消費者選擇購買產品後其合用的機率皆夠低的情況下,零售商會傾向提供全額退款之退貨政策。
The impact of return policy to retailers has been growing. In today’s consumer trends, consumers can return the product as long as they are not satisfied, so that the retailer was forced to face the high return cost and the huge losses caused by the consumer’s return uncertainty. Therefore, how to strike a balance between generous return policy and maximizing profits is a big problem to retailers.
In the past, the cooperation between manufacturers and retailers were usually by the traditional wholesale price contract. And now, the cooperation between them has many ways, revenue sharing contract is one of them. In the revenue sharing contract, only the retail price determined by the retailer, and the retailer and the manufacturer agree on a revenue sharing rate to share retailer’s revenue. This contract has been in practice by many company, therefore, this study constructed a model of game theory to explore how two different contracts affect retailer''s return policy.
The study concluded that (1) regardless of what kind of contracts, the product quality have a positive effect and the residual of the product have a negative effect to the generosity to retailer’s return policy. However, the “fit or not fit” probability and the magnitude of utility’s impairment about the product felt by consumers have the different effect in the two different contracts. (2) In the revenue sharing contract, if the “fit or not fit” probability is high, the retailer’s revenue sharing rate has a positive effect to the generosity to retailer’s return policy. On the contrary, if the “fit or not fit” probability is low, the retailer’s revenue sharing rate at first has a positive effect, and then have a negative effect to the generosity of retailer’s return policy. (3) Besides, the study also found that when the retailer’s revenue sharing rate and the “fit or not fit” probability is too high, the retailer will prefer the money back guarantee.
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