|摘要: ||過去動態競爭之研究，多將模仿行為視為競爭回應之一環，卻少以理論探討模仿行為本身之意涵及對績效之影響。同時，隨著多重市場接觸觀點之興起，過去實證研究卻發現廠商面對多重市場接觸下，可能產生競爭更加激烈與更加減緩 (相互容忍) 兩種截然相反之結果。因此，本研究欲將動態競爭之競爭性互動與模仿理論作結合，同時探討多重市場接觸環境下可能產生之影響效果。|
本研究以台灣連鎖式便利商店業為樣本產業，並將4大便利商店中統一視為領導廠商，全家、萊爾富、OK視為追隨廠商作為研究對象。研究主要透過結構內容分析法 (structured content analysis)，使用知識贏家KMW全方位新聞資料庫，蒐集自2005年至2011年共計7年間台灣連鎖式便利商店廠商競爭行動之新聞，並以月分為資料庫分析單位，捕捉連鎖式便利商店業激烈競爭之過程。為了進一步辨識競爭行動之類型，本研究以問卷方式，發放至產業從業人員高階主管及行銷領域之學者填答，內容詢問執行該競爭行動之不可逆轉性程度，並以執行分數表示高低，若高於平均值即為策略性行動；反之，則為戰術性行動。本研究共將18項競爭行動劃分為9種戰術性及9種策略性行動。
本研究探討競爭性互動過程中，領導廠商所採取之戰術及策略性行動與追隨廠商採取同類型之模仿回應關係，並以多重市場接觸情境探討其對領導廠商與追隨廠商競爭互動之影響。實證結果發現：(1) 當領導廠商採取越多戰術性/策略性行動，追隨廠商也會採取越多戰術性/策略性的模仿作回應。(2) 多重市場接觸程度越高時，會分別弱化與強化領導廠商採取戰術/策略行動對追隨廠商戰術/策略模仿回應的正向關係 (3) 追隨廠商採取戰術/策略模仿回應時，對領導廠商及追隨廠商績效都有正向關係。
The early studies about competitive dynamics used to regard imitative behavior as a part of competitive response. Few of them investigated the meaning of imitative behavior itself and the effect of imitative behavior on performance. Simultaneously, along with the emergence of multimarket contact perspective, researchers discovered that when facing the situation of multimarket contact, it may present two distinctly different results of decreasing or increasing intensity of competition. Therefore, this study devoted to combine competitive interaction and imitative theory in competitive dynamics. Furthermore, explore the probable influences under the situation of multimarket contact.
We take chain convenience stores in Taiwan as the objective industry of this study, regarding 7-ELEVEN as the leading firm, whereas FAMILY MART, HI-LIFE and OK as the following firms. In this study, structured content analysis is adopted and the database of Knowledge Management Winner (KMW) is used. News of the competitive interactions within firms is collected from 2005 to 2007. Furthermore, we ask for information from managers of the convenience stores and experts in marketing by questionnaire, which is about the irreversibility of each competitive action. It is regarded as strategic action when the score is higher than average; on the contrary, it is regarded as tactical action. Ultimately, we get 9 strategic actions and 9 tactical actions.
This study focus on the relationship between the tactical or strategic actions of the leading firm and the imitative reactions of the following firms within competitive interactions, considering multimarket contact as a moderating variable. According to the results, firstly, the more tactical or strategic actions the leading firm takes, the more imitative reactions the following firms will respond. Secondly, multimarket contact can weaken the relationship between the tactical or strategic actions of the leading firm and the imitative reactions of the following firms. Finally, the effect of the imitative reactions of the following firms on the performance of both leading firm and following firms is positively significant.