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標題: 無電極電鍍奈米銀球探針之研究與應用
A Study and Applications of A Silver Nano-Ball Probe Manufactured by Electroless Plating
作者: 游明翰
Yu, Ming-Han
Contributors: 張茂男
奈米科學研究所
關鍵字: 無電極電鍍;奈米銀球;掃描電位顯微術;場感測掃描探針顯微術
Silver;Nano-ball;SKPM;Electroless plating;FS-SPM
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-18 11:43:10 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 奈米科學研究所
摘要: 場感測掃描探針顯微術可量測材料電性、磁性和表面電位等等物理資訊。其使用不同種類的金屬鍍膜輕敲式探針,透過樣品與探針之間的靜電力、磁力、功函數變化,在一樣品平面上因樣品與探針間各作用力的不同而得到所需的物理資訊與影像分布。但因金屬鍍膜探針之場感測範圍並非僅侷限於探針尖端,導致在量測的過程中會有雜散場的干擾,造成影像的膨脹與空間解析度的下降,限制了場感測掃描探針顯微術的發展和應用。
在此研究工作中,利用無電極電鍍的方式製作出奈米銀球尖探針以抑制金屬鍍膜探針所造成的雜散場效應。此法除了金屬純度佳之外,以原子置換的方式簡化了探針尖端內部組成的情形,縮小金屬與探針的接觸面積。且透過溶液濃度與探針與樣品間距的控制,可以成長出不同大小之奈米銀球探針。奈米銀球探針經微波熱退火後,會於矽銀界面生成矽化銀減少界面捕捉效應,提升整體導電性。再比較使用熱退火前後的探針所得的表面電位分布統計圖,發現使用熱退火後的奈米銀球探針在訊號鑑別度與精度上有所提升,且掃描電位顯微術訊號有偏移的情形。經靜電力掃描顯微術分析,奈米銀球探針經微波熱退火後,會形成一帶有負電荷的奈米銀球探針,此結果說明了奈米銀球探針因電子的填充而改變了探針原本的功函數,導致掃描電位顯微術訊號有偏移的情形。
Field-sensitive scanning probe microscopy (FS-SPM) can observe electrical, magnetic properties as well as surface potential of materials. FS-SPM acquires physical information by a tapping-mode metal-coating probe. It observes different physical images through the variance of electrostatic force, magnetic force, and work function difference between a sample surface and a probe apex. Unfortunately, the sensing area of a metal-coating probe is large, inducing a stray field effect (SFE). SFE broadens the image and declines the spatial resolution in FS-SPM.
In this study, we employed electroless plating to produce a silver nano-ball probe (SNBP) which can suppress the SFE. Using this method, the silicon tip apex has been no longer covered by silver, but the SNB substituted Si atoms on tip apex, increasing the purity of the SNB. With controlling the process conditions including the concentration of solution and the reaction time, the size of SNB can be adjusted. In addition, microwave annealing (MA) a low-thermal-budget annealing process modified the Ag/Si interface and enhanced the conductivity of the probes. The MA-treated SNBP has a negatively charged tip apex, which has been revealed by electrostatic force microscopy. This induced a surface potential shift and hence enhanced the SKPM signals. The last but not the least, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy evidently showed that the MA-treated SNBPs enhance the sensitivity and precision. The physical mechanism of MA influence on SKPM will be discussed in this work.
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