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標題: 蚜蟲分子鑑定及溫度對蚜蟲與其內共生菌之影響
Aphid molecular identification and effects of temperature on aphid and its endosymbionts
作者: 陸維濃
Lu, Wei-Nung
Contributors: 郭美華
Mei-Hwa Kuo
昆蟲學系所
關鍵字: RAPD;SCAR;豌豆蚜;共生菌;溫度
RAPD;SCAR;pea aphid;symbiont;temperature
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-18 11:47:27 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 昆蟲學系所
摘要: 現今國際間農產品貿易往來頻繁,蚜蟲侵入非原生氣候區的機會大幅增加,本論文第一章試圖以逢機增幅多型性及序列特徵化增幅區域兩項技術進行蚜蟲分子鑑定,並成功對豌豆蚜Acyrthosiphon pisum、黑豆蚜Aphis craccivora、偽菜蚜Lipaphis erysimi、蓼蚜Myzus formosanus、金針瘤蚜Myzus hemerocalli及桃蚜Myzus persicae設計出具有種間專一性的引子對,證明蚜蟲分子鑑定之可行性。豌豆蚜之基礎生態在溫帶以外相關研究甚少,本論文第二章將採集自田間的豌豆蚜置於六個定溫下飼養,建立其在亞熱帶台灣地區的基礎生命表資料。結果顯示隨著溫度自10°C升高至35°C,豌豆蚜發育速度持續增加,飼養於30及35°C之豌豆蚜,分別有7及25%的若蚜成功發育為成蚜,但成蚜無法進行繁殖。隨著溫度自10°C升高至25°C,豌豆蚜之族群內在增殖率亦隨之增加,在20及25°C時則沒有顯著差異。在研究昆蟲與共生菌之研究領域當中,豌豆蚜是一廣泛研究的材料,本論文在第三章著手探究蚜蟲齡別及溫度對蚜蟲絕對共生菌Buchnera aphidicola數量之影響,結果顯示蚜蟲年齡增加和溫度上升均會造成B. aphidicola數量之減少。全球暖化之現象對溫帶地區之蚜蟲帶來種類數量增加的優勢,本論文第四章則其對亞熱帶地區蚜蟲有何影響。結果顯示當前亞熱帶台灣地區夏季之氣溫狀態及輕度的實驗性暖化即足以使豌豆蚜族群呈現負成長;在中度及重度實驗性暖化程度下,豌豆蚜無法建立族群。熱休克蛋白是物種熱容忍能力的主要來源,本篇論文亦針對豌豆蚜、豌豆蚜之絕對共生菌B. aphidicola及次級共生菌Serratia symbiotica之熱休克蛋白基因dnk/hsp70在不同實驗性暖化程度下的表現量進行偵測,結果顯示豌豆蚜發育期間,熱休克蛋白基因之持續表現可能造成豌豆蚜族群增殖之負面影響。
Accompanied with the worldwide transportation of agricultural products, the risk of aphid invasion to other climate regions has been highly increased. The feasibility of aphid molecular identification had been tested in chapter one. By using random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting and sequence characterized amplified region technology, six aphid species including Acyrthosiphon pisum, Aphis craccivora, Lipaphis erysimi, Myzus formosanus, Myzus hemerocallis, Myzus persicae were able to be identified. The basic ecology of pea aphid A. pisum is lesser known in subtropical regions. We therefore conducted life table experiments on field captured populations at six constant temperatures. The development rate increased when temperature increased from 10 to 35�C. Seventy and 25% nymphs successfully developed into adults when reared at 30�C and 35�C, but adults were not capable of reproduction. The intrinsic rate of population growth also increased when temperature increased from 10 to 25�C. No significant difference lay between the values of 20 to 25�C. Pea aphid also plays a crucial role in investigations of symbiotic relationship. In chapter three, we evaluated the effects of seven host life stages and six constant temperatures on the density of Buchnera aphidicola. The results had revealed that both temperature and host life stage were influential to B. aphidicola density which decreased with the increasing temperature and aging host. Aphids had been demonstrated to benefit from global warming by increasing species numbers in temperate region, which motivated our attempt to explore the response of subtropical pea aphid. The results had suggested that the current condition of summer in Taiwan and a slight level of experimental warming were hot enough to stop pea aphid population from growing. When raised under the moderate and severe levels of experimental warming, pea aphid were unable to establish population. We also assessed the dnk/hsp70 gene expressions of pea aphid, its obligate B. aphidicola and its facultative symbiont Serratia symbiont across juvenile development of pea aphids reared at different levels of experimental warming and found that the continuous expressions of heat shock gene might cost for population fitness of pea aphid.
Keywords: RAPD, SCAR, pea aphid, symbiont, temperature
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