|摘要: ||棕帶蜚蠊(Supella longipalpa)為居家常見的衛生害蟲之一；而蟲生真菌黑殭菌(Metarhizium anisopliae)為具有專一性及安全性之防治資材。本試驗以黑殭菌為防治資材，利用居家常用的害蟲管理策略，如噴灑藥劑、餌劑及費洛蒙陷阱等防治棕帶蜚蠊。試驗中所使用之黑殭菌品系，於25oC下有最高的致死率。施用方法以直接噴灑孢子懸浮液於蜚蠊體表可達到最有效的防治效果，施用濃度1.6 × 108 conidia/ml之懸浮液，使蜚蠊21日之累積死亡率為78.3 %，LT50為9.8天；黑殭菌對雄蟲達半致死作用較雌蟲快，且濃度越高，半致死時間越短。含有分生孢子粉之陷阱中添加糞便萃取液或/及食餌綜合應用，可提升黑殭菌對蜚蠊之致死率，其中以添加二氯甲烷萃取液之應用效果最佳，造成蜚蠊之死亡率達55.6 %。結果顯示添加食餌提升整體之死亡率，甲醇及乙醇糞便萃取液添加食餌綜合應用造成蜚蠊之死亡率分別為35.6、23.3%，比單獨使用甲醇及乙醇萃取液分別增加了12.3、8.9 %的死亡率；試驗證實糞便萃取液及食餌可提升其防治效力，且成蟲之死亡率較若蟲高。以含有孢子懸浮液之飼料餵食蜚蠊，可使成蟲之死亡率達20.0%。噴灑孢子懸浮液於材質表面使蜚蠊接觸感染之防治效果較差，以施用於塑膠、瓷磚及玻璃光滑表面之效果較佳，不鏽鋼板及粗糙的木板則較低。此外，本試驗之菌株可於具有聚集性的蜚蠊族群間水平傳播(帶原：未感染個體= 1: 10)，使未感染個體達30.0 %之死亡率。試驗結果顯示，黑殭菌應用於防治棕帶蜚蠊上，不僅可單獨使用，也可搭配食餌及糞便萃取液綜合應用；且孢子具水平傳播之特性，可於蜚蠊族群間達到有效的防治效果。|
The brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa (Fabricius), is one of the common household pests, while Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorok is an entomopathogenic fungus, which is safe to humans, mammals, and environment. The pathogenicity of M. anisopliae against the brown-banded cockroach was evaluated using the common household pest management techniques i.e., spraying, bait, and pheromone trap. The most effective control measure was by praying the conidial suspension directly on the cockroach at 25oC. When sprayed a suspension at 1.6 � 108 conidia/ml, the mortality and LT50 value were 78.3% and 9.8 days, respectively. The trap containing conidia combined with fecal extracts or/and food as an integrated application method was capable of enhancing the fungal infection. The treatment of cockroaches with conidia in combination with dichloromethane fecal extracts was found to be more effective, causing ca. 55.6% mortality. Moreover, applications of methanol or ethanol fecal extracts combined with foods resulted in 35.6 and 23.3% mortality in comparison with only 23.3 and 14.4%, respectively, by treating with methanol or ethanol extracts alone, indicating that fecal extracts applied together with foods could enhance the insecticidal activity. The food bait prepared by combining the bird food with the conidial suspension caused 20.0% mortality. The suspension was sprayed on the surface of different materials commonly used for interior decoration in which those with smoother surface caused higher mortality; for example, plastic, tile and glass were higher than stainless sheet steel or wood. In addition, the potentially horizontal transmission of M. anisopliae resulting in infection of healthy cockroaches was also studied. At a ratio of 1:10 (exposed : unexposed to conidia) could cause 30.0% mortality in healthy colonies. The results indicate that M. anisopliae can be transmitted horizontally within the brown-banded cockroach populations. Therefore, M. anisopliae could be a potential microbial agent for managing this cockroach when applied alone or in combination with food baits or with the bait stations containing fecal extracts.