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標題: 公然侮辱案件實務判決之研究
The Study of Court Decisions on Public Insult
作者: 尹世祥
YIN, SHIH-HSIANG
Contributors: 蔡蕙芳
HUEI- FANG TSAI
法律學系碩士在職專班
關鍵字: 公然侮辱罪;言論自由;有罪判決;無罪判決;有爭議的判決;修復式司法。
Public Insult;freedom of speech;guilty verdict;innocent verdict;Restorative Justice.
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-18 13:39:38 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 法律學系碩士在職專班
摘要: 「公然侮辱罪」與「誹謗罪」是妨害名譽罪章中的兩大罪名,然而從以往的研究當中,本文卻發現這些研究公然侮辱的論文則多從事法釋義學研究,而較少從實務之判決的觀點去瞭解我國法院在公然侮辱罪相關法律問題上之立場,因此本文嘗試以實證研究方法來統計及歸納公然侮辱罪名的地方法院判決以了解公然侮辱罪名的相關問題。
在第二章「公然侮辱罪與言論自由之關係與界限」的內容中,本文發現言論自由僅係有限度的自由,而並非係完全毫無限制,所以當個人的名譽受到他人之言論自由侵害時,國家會以相關的法律要件限制之,所以言論自由與名譽權保護之界限就在於保護名譽權之法律條文(要件)成立,其反應在刑法上便係指刑法第309條公然侮辱罪以及第310條的誹謗罪的成立。
而在第三章「公然侮辱罪名之相關詞語研究及分析」的內容中,本文將公然侮辱罪判決中所蒐集詞語分成為六類,即詛咒類、影射類、輕蔑嘲諷類、輕蔑貶抑類、辱罵以及其他類詞語,其中「辱罵類詞語」以及「輕蔑貶抑類詞語」分別占了所有公然侮辱相關詞語出現頻率以及被法院判處有罪次數最多及次多,因此本文將這兩類詞語歸類為在公然侮辱罪名中有成罪危險之詞語範圍,所以吾人在與他人爭執之際實宜避免使用這兩類詞語。
在第四章「關於公然侮辱罪法院判決之研究」的部分,本文所要討論的是「有罪判決」、「無罪判決」的種類與量刑理由以及本文認為之有爭議的判決。在此本文將有罪判決分為12類,將無罪判決分為6類。
最後在第五章的部分,本文認為公訴不受理判決對於受理之法官而言可以說是「一種藉由提倡雙方當事人的和解以真正解決公然侮辱案件背後的衝突的方式」,因為本文認為從許多的公訴不受理判決理由中所出現的「當庭進行調解程序以及告訴人當庭撤回」等文字來看,判處公訴不受理判決的法官當中其實約占3分之1的法官是提倡與贊成雙方當事人進行和解與調解的。而法院這樣提倡雙方當事人和解之行為(促成公訴不受理判決),本文認為這不僅是「刑事司法之轉向」,也是「修復式司法觀念之落實」。
“Public insult” and “criminal defamation“ are both the offences against reputation. Prior studies concerning public insult have been focused on the explanation of the Criminal Code, rather than on the court decisions. Therefore, this study contributes to the analysis of district court decisions on public insult in order to examine the problems.
Chapter 2 of this thesis explains that the freedom of speech is limited. The freedom of speech is not an excuse for one person to hurt another individual’s reputation. Therefore, such conduct is punishable under the Criminal Code . On the other hand, the freedom of speech is also considered as the boundary for the enforcement on the offence of public insult under the Criminal Code.
In Chapter 3, the study divided the expressions of public insult into six categories, namely cursing, insinuation, innuendo, degrading, insult, and miscellaneous. The study found that expressions in the categories of degrading and insult have high conviction(guilty verdict)rates as compared with others, and therefore were labeled “high alert.” In Chapter 4, this study further discusses “guilty verdict” and “ not-guilty verdict”. This study divided guilty verdicts into 12 types and divided not-guilty verdicts into 6 types based on the underlying reasons for the judgments. In Chapter 5, the thesis concludes that dismissal judgment is a better option to settle the disputes involving public insult. It is also expected that the judges would agree on the proposal, since the judges usually prefer the parties to settle. Hence, the thesis suggests dismissal judgment as a means to divert public insult from criminal punishment.
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