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標題: 預測基層員工志願性離職之研究
A Study of Predicting the Voluntary Turnover of Entry-Level Employee
作者: 陳怡伶
Chen, Yi-Ling
Contributors: 林金賢
Chin-Shien Lin
高階經理人碩士在職專班
關鍵字: 離職率;應徵者離職預測模型;個人簡歷;五大人格特質;內外控人格特質
turnover;the predictive model of applicant turnover;five-factor personality traits;biodata;locus of control
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-18 14:49:25 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 高階經理人碩士在職專班
摘要: 員工離職率一直是組織重視的議題,隨著社會結構的改變、生活水平的提升、高等教育程度的快速擴充,這個問題是日益嚴重。過去,學術界以及實務界所關注的議題聚焦在解釋及探討員工離職的原因,但是很少研究去探討組織如何透過遴選以減少員工離職。因此,本研究期望藉由探討組織中影響員工離職的可能因素,分析各項變數對員工離職的預測效果,進而建構員工離職的預測模型,期能在雇用前發揮對應徵者離職的預測效果,透過對應徵者離職預測的準確性,來降低員工流動率的可能性。
本研究以台灣3K產業R公司為研究對象,透過問卷蒐集該公司在職及已離職員工,共計蒐集134份有效問卷。從在職以及離職員工留任時間(年資)長短的觀點,將年資依六個月、一年、兩年及三年各自分為兩群進行探討。研究結果發現(1)個人簡歷(學歷、婚姻狀況等)對員工離職有很好的預測效果。(2)雇用前工作內鑲嵌不論時間長短對員工離職都有顯著的負向影響。(3)習慣性承諾對員工離職皆無顯著影響。(4)將五大人格特質衡量結果進行分群命名後(分為熱情衝動型、積極進取型、不伎不求型及被動敏感型),由年資三年的結果顯示不伎不求型的員工與其他人格分群有顯著的正向差異。(5)在工作需求壓力的部分,撫養人數在年資兩年及三年時對員工離職皆有顯著的負向影響。而家庭總收入在60萬元以上,則在年資三年有負向顯著差異。(6)過去工作類型相似性則只在年資兩年有顯著的負向影響。
由各顯著預測變項依邏輯斯迴歸分析取得年資六個月、一年、兩年、三年的員工離職的預測模型,其整體預測準確度分別為76.4%、77.1%、86.0%、84.9%,這些預測模型可作為個案公司未來在遴選時的判斷參考依據借以避免及降低離職率。
Organizations pay attentions to the issue of employee turnover, but the problem of turnover is more serious by changing in social structure, improving the living standard, and the rapid expansion of tertiary education. In the past, researchers and practitioners focused on explaining and discussing the reasons of staff leaving, but few researches explore how to reduce the employee turnover in organization through selection. Therefore, this study expected to establish the predictive model of applicant turnover by discussing and analyzing the variables affecting employee turnover. Because of the forecast accuracy, it could work well on predictive employee turnover, then to reduce employee turnover.
The study set R Company, one of Taiwan 3K industrial companies, as the target. We collected 134 valid questionnaires from current and former employees. According to the tenure of current employees and the retention time of former employees, we divided the samples into two groups at different retention time, six months, one, two and three years, then to explore the effect of variables to turnover. The results showed (1) the biodata items (education, gender etc.) are good predictors. (2) The pre-hiring on-job embeddedness was negatively related to turnover regardless of any retention time.(3)Habitual commitment wasn’t significant related to turnover.(4)We grouped the results of five-factor personality traits and named (divided into warm and impulsive type, aggressive type, indifferent to fame type and passive sensitive type), then the three-year results was found that there was a significant positive difference in turnover between indifferent staff and warm and impulsive type.(5)For the pressure from getting a job, the variable, number of dependents, showed significant negatively related to turnover when retention time was two or three-year. Besides, the three-year results show there was a significant negative difference in turnover between the total household income of NT60 millions and below NT30 millions. (6) The variable, the similarity of type of previous work, was a significant negatively related to turnover in retention time of two-year.
According to the valid predictors by logistic regression analysis, we got the predictive model of applicant turnover of six months, one year, two years, three years; the overall predictive accuracies were 76.4%, 77.1%, 86.0%, 84.9%, and the models could help the organization to make decision in the selection in the future then avoid and reduce the turnover.
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