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National Chung Hsing University Institutional Repository - NCHUIR > 農業暨自然資源學院 > 動物科學系 > 依資料類型分類 > 碩博士論文 >  香椿及魚腥草粗萃液之抗菌特性的評估及其在台式香腸之應用

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nchuir.lib.nchu.edu.tw/handle/309270000/153610

標題: 香椿及魚腥草粗萃液之抗菌特性的評估及其在台式香腸之應用
Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Toona sinensis and Houttuynia cordata extracts using different solvents and their application in Taiwanese style sausage
作者: 羅曼莉
Luo, Man-Li
Contributors: 劉登城
動物科學系所
關鍵字: 香椿;魚腥草
Toona sinensis;Houttuynia cordata
日期: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-11-18 14:58:33 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 動物科學系所
摘要: 中文摘要

台式香腸為一種半乾式香腸,其是由攪碎之顆粒狀絞肉與背脂加入砂糖、米酒及香辛料後進行醃漬所製成,並於醃漬後產生獨特之風味;然而因台式香腸糖分含量高,且於製造過程中採低溫長時間之烘乾方式,而常會促使微生物可大量生長並降低保存期限,因此本試驗將添加香椿 (Toona sinensis) 或魚腥草 (Houttuynia cordata) 萃取物於台式香腸中,並探討其於高溫冷藏 (15℃) 期間微生物學之變化。試驗一結果顯示,香椿與魚腥草萃取物之總類黃酮與總酚含量皆隨其香椿與魚腥草添加量增加而上升 (p < 0.05),且以酒精為溶劑之香椿處理組 (Te) 其總類黃酮與總酚含量較以水為溶劑之香椿處理組 (Tw) 與以酒精為溶劑之魚腥草處理組 (Hc) 高。試驗二結果顯示,所有處理組之總酚含量、DPPH 自由基清除能力及亞鐵離子螯合能力皆隨著加熱時間與加熱溫度增加而下降 (p < 0.05),而於相同加熱溫度與加熱時間下,Te 處理組之總酚含量較 Tw 與 Hc 處理組高,另 Tw 處理組之亞鐵離子螯合能力則較 Te 與 Hc 處理組佳。試驗三結果顯示, Tw 處理組對金黃色葡萄球菌 (S. aureus) 、大腸桿菌 (E. coli) 、假單孢菌 (P. aeruginosa) 與乳酸菌 (L. acidphilus) 菌具有良好之抑制能力,且 Te 處理組僅具有些許抑制金黃色葡萄球菌與乳酸菌生長之能力,然而於本試驗中 Hc 處理組並無抑制選取菌種生長之能力。試驗四結果顯示
,各處理組之總生菌數、乳酸菌數、厭氧菌數、黴菌與酵母菌數及VBN 值皆隨著儲藏時間增加而上升 (p < 0.05),而添加 250 ppm 香椿 (Te250) 及125 ppm 之香椿 (Te125)處理組之微生物菌數與 VBN 值之結果皆較其他處理組為低,且此結果相似於 NaL 處理組,另添加己二烯酸鉀 (KS)、125 ppm 魚腥草 (Hc125) 及 250 ppm 魚腥草 (Hc250) 之處理組微生物菌數與 VBN 值則較高;所有處理組之 pH 皆隨著儲藏時間增加而下降 (p < 0.05),且 NaL、Te125 及 Te250 處理組於15℃下進行儲藏其 pH 顯著高於 KS 、Hc125 及 Hc250 處理組;所有處理組之 L*、a* 及 b* 值與感官品評之色澤、風味及總接受度評分皆隨著儲藏時間增加而下降 (p < 0.05),但異味評分則有逐漸增加之趨勢。綜觀上述,香椿萃取物含有大量之總類黃酮與總酚含量,且以酒精進行萃取之含量較高;而在儲存於較高之冷藏溫度 (15℃) 的台式香腸中添加香椿萃取物,相較於魚腥草萃取物與己二烯酸鉀可有效地抑制微生物生長,且其效果相似於乳酸鈉,因此於台式香腸生產工業中,香椿萃取物具有取代乳酸鈉與己二烯酸鉀作為抗菌劑之潛力。
Abstract

Taiwanese style sausage is a semi-dry sausage made with the larger particle size of ground pork curing with backfat, high sugar content, rice wine and some spices, which produces a unique aroma after curing. However, the shelf life of this product is a short time due to high sugar content, low temperature and short time for drying and makes it susceptible to bacterial growth. Therefore, the utilization of extracts of Toona sinensis or Houttuynia cordata in Taiwanese style sausage to inhibit bacteria and prolong the shelf life during storage at high refrigerated temperature (15°C) was the purpose of this research. In experiment I, total flavonoids and total phenolics contents of both herb extracts were increased (p<0.05) with the percentage herbs of solutions, T. sinensis extracted with ethanol (Te) had higher total flavonoids and total phenolics contents than that of extracted with water (Tw) and H. cordata extracted with ethanol (Hc). In experiment II, the residual of total phenolics contents, the scavenging capacity of DPPH radical and the chelating Fe2+ ability of all groups were decreased (p<0.05) with heating time and temperature increase, Te had higher the residual of total phenolics contents and better scavenging capacity than Tw and Hc when heated at the same temperature and time. However, Tw had better chelating ability than TE and Hc. In Experiment III, Te showed the best inhibition (p<0.05) on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus acidophilus, but Tw only had slight inhibition on the growth of S. aureus and L. acidophilus, however, Hc didn’t have antibacterial activity on the growth of all selected bacteria in this study. In experiment IV, the total plate count, anaerobic plate count, lactic acid bacteria count, mold and yeast count and VBN value of all treatments increased (p<0.05) with storage time, the sausage treated with 250 ppm T. sinensis (Te250) and 125 ppm T. sinensis (Te125) showed the lower bacteria count and VBN value during storage and the results were similar to the results of NaL. However, sausage treated with potassium sorbate (KS), 125 ppm H. cordata (Hc125) and 250 ppm H. cordata (Hc250) had higher bacteria count and VBN value. Sausages treated with NaL, Te125 and Te250 had higher pH values than that of Hc125 and Hc250 and KS during storage at 15°C. The L*, a* and b*, color, flavor and overall acceptance of the sensory score of all treatment decreased with storage time but off-odor of all treatments was increased with storage time. In conclusion, extracts of Toona sinensis possessed high total flavonoids and total phenolics contents and also showed high antibacterial ability, especially extract of T. sinensis with ethanol. The application of herbs extracts in Taiwanese style sausage and stored at higher refrigerated temperature (15°C), sausages treated with T. sinensis extracts showed better antibacterial activity than that of Houttuynia cordata and potassium sorbate and the same as sodium lactate in the study. Therefore, extracts of T. sinensis would be suitable to replace sodium lactate or potassium sorbate in Taiwanese style sausage for inhibiting the growth of bacteria in the future.
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