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標題: 鄉鎮市長民選改官派對地方事務之影響—以臺中市為例
The Impact of Transformation from Elected to Appointed Mayors on Local Affairs: The Case of Taichung
作者: 王紫璇
Wang, Tzu-Shiuan
Contributors: 袁鶴齡
Hao-Lin Yuan
國家政策與公共事務研究所
關鍵字: 鄉鎮市長;區長;地方事務;善治;地方派系
township mayors;supervisor;local affairs;good governance;local factions
日期: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-11-18 15:31:08 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 國家政策與公共事務研究所
摘要: 2010年12月25日,臺中、臺南與高雄三個縣市合併升格為直轄市,且臺北縣也從準直轄市的身份升格為直轄市。其中一個攸關地方政府組織重要的改變,就是原縣級民選的鄉鎮市,配合改制成為派出的區級機關,並在地方制度法的規範之下,部分原鄉鎮市長轉任為區長。由於這些區長同時具有民選鄉鎮市長的經驗,成為研究鄉鎮市長民選或官派議題最好的實務機會。
為探究改制後,鄉鎮市改制為區級機關對於地方事務造成的影響,本研究以臺中市為對象,以深度訪談的方式,希望從地方自治的精神來瞭解12位轉任區長的原鄉鎮市長,在同時具有民選及官派經驗的情況下,對於鄉鎮市長民選與官派的態度。此外,再以善治的參與(participatory)、共識取向(consensus oriented)、可課責性(accountable)、透明性(transparent)、有回應(responsive)、效能與效率(effective and efficient)、公平與不排他(equitable and inclusive)與遵守法規(follows the rule of law)八個特性為基礎,探究合併後是否達成善治的成效;最後則是探討當鄉鎮市長由民選改為官派之後,地方政治生態可能出現的變遷。
本研究發現,原擔任鄉鎮市長的區長,從民主原則、地方自治與地方實際發展的觀點,多數希望能維持鄉鎮市長的民選。而對於改制後臺中市政府治理的成效,全部受訪者對於善治的八個特性,大多數都是抱持負面的看法,甚至在課責性的部分,更是全部受訪者皆認為市府的努力仍然不足。最多肯定的則是遵守法規的部分,但也只有4位受訪者採取正面態度。足見市府在治理的發展上,仍有極大的努力空間。最後,在地方政治生態的變遷上,一方面立法委員選舉制度的改變,另一方面改制後得以競爭的民選職務大幅減少,使得過去主導地方政治生態的地方派系逐漸式微,取而代之的是政黨政治,以及對於行政中立的尊重。
Taichung, Tainan and Kaohsiung cities and counties have merged and promoted to municipalities December 25, 2010, and Taipei County was upgraded from quasi-municipality to municipality. One of the vital change in local government organization is the original county-level townships of democratic election have transformed into district organization of assignment accordingly. Under the specification of the Local Government Act, parts of the former township mayors have transferred to the supervisors. Due to the supervisors having the experiences as the elected township mayors, they become the best practice subjects to be studied as the democratically elected or officially assigned township mayors.
To investigate the impacts of local affairs after the transformation of township into district organization, Taichung City is adopted as the subject in this study. With depth interviews, we hope to learn the 12 former township mayors from the viewpoints of the spirits of local self-governments, as well as the attitudes of mayors about either being elected or assigned for those that have both election and assignment experiences. In addition, based on the following 8 characters of good governance that are participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive, and following the rule of law, we explored the effects in good governance after the mergence. Finally, we hopefully investigated the possible changes of local political ecology after the official assignments of those former elected township mayors.
In this study, we conclude that most supervisors of the former township mayors prefer to maintain the democratic elections of township mayors from the viewpoints of the democratic principles, local self-governance and practical local developments. As for the governance effectiveness of the transformed Taichung City Government, most of respondents consider the 8 characters of good governance with negative views. All respondents even have the ideas that the efforts of city government are still insufficient in the part of accountability. However, the most approved part is compliance, but there are only 4 respondents behold the positive attitudes. That indicates that the city government still has a great deal of efforts to mend in the governance developments. Finally, as far as the changes of local political ecology, the changes of legislator election system as well as the substantial reductions of elective officials being competed after the transformation have made the local factions that have dominated the local political ecology in the past declined gradually. Instead, it is replaced by the party politics as well as the respects for administrative neutrality.
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