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標題: 扇形文心蘭開花調節與觀賞用試管花貯運
Flowering Regulation and Transportation of in vitro Ornamental Products of Erycina pusilla (L.) N. H. Williams & M. W. Chase
作者: 蔡函育
Tsai, Han-Yu
Contributors: 張正
Chen Chang
國際農學研究所
關鍵字: 扇形文心蘭;開花調節;貯運;試管花
Erycina pusilla;flowering regulation;transportation;in vitro ornamental products
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-19 11:56:16 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 國際農學研究所
摘要: 扇形文心蘭因株型小、有顯眼的黃色花朵、且能持續在瓶內開花,因此適合作為商品化的試管蘭花。本試驗以瓶內扇形文心蘭為植物材料,進行開花調節與觀賞用試管花貯運試驗。
本試驗中調節開花的方法有植株刻傷、植株平放於培養基上、以及改變培養基中無機氮和蔗糖之濃度。植株刻傷處理及植株刻傷與平放處理可降低植株體內的全氮含量,並增加澱粉及全醣含量,因此可提高植株體內之碳氮比。植株碳氮比提高,花梗生成數在14週內增加。在植株生長方面,植株刻傷會產生較多褐化葉、褐化根、以及較重的鮮重。降低培養基無機氮含量至原來的1/16 (118.75 mg L-1 KNO3 and 103.125 mg L-1 NH4NO3),植株可產生較多的花苞與開花數,並對植株生長沒有負面的影響。此外,增加培養基中蔗糖的含量至40 g L-1,植株也可生成較多的花苞與開花數,但提升蔗糖含量也會使植株鮮重增加以及葉片增厚。
在扇形文心蘭觀賞用試管花貯運試驗方面,分別進行模擬貯運以及實際運輸。扇形文心蘭試管花可在15-30℃的溫度下黑暗貯運一週,對植株生長及其開花無負面影響。若模擬貯運時間延長為4週,則需將溫度控制於20-25℃。植株經4週的模擬貯運有較多的消苞數,且30℃的4週模擬貯運會對植株造成褐化葉以及褐化花梗之傷害。實際運輸方面,運輸過程中造成嚴重的培養基破碎和植株移位導致無法獲得完整的試管花商品。且冬季運輸約10℃的低溫使植株生成較少的轉色花苞與開放花朵、產生較多的消苞、較多的褐化葉以及褐化花梗。所以在扇形文心蘭試管花的實際運輸中,除了注意在運輸過程中提供合適的溫度與時間外,還需考慮運輸途中的振動、汙染率、預期之外的環境改變、和海關檢查等其它因素,才能獲得完整的試管花商品。
由本試驗得知,扇形文心蘭具有可進行開花調節與耐貯運之特性,為發展蘭花試管花商品之理想植物材料。
Erycina pusilla is a miniature orchid with obvious yellow flower and can constantly produce flowers within in vitro condition. Thus, Erycina pusilla is considered as a suitable orchid to develop in vitro ornamental products. In this study, flowering regulation and transportation was examined in in vitro Erycina pusilla.
Physical wounding on plants, modifying the direction of inserting plants into the medium, modulating the composition of inorganic nitrogen and sucrose concentration in the culture medium were conducted in regulating in vitro Erycina pusilla flowering. The results showed that performing physical injury alone and combination treatment of physical injury and different placement led to lower inorganic nitrogen content, higher starch and total carbohydrate content. Thus, the C/N ratio of plants was regulated to higher value, and more flower stalks production were observed after 14 weeks of culture. In the part of plant condition, performing mechanical injury led to more browning roots and leaves, and heavier plant weight. Modulating the concentration of inorganic nitrogen to 1/16 (118.75 mg L-1 KNO3 and 103.125 mg L-1 NH4NO3) in culture medium promoted the production of flower bud and flower, fewer abortive flower buds, and no severe damage was detected on plant growth. More flower bud and flower production were observed when increasing sucrose concentration to 40 g L-1 in medium. However, thicker leaves were observed in treatment of increasing sucrose concentration from 40 to 60 g L-1.
Both simulated transportation and practical transportation were conducted in in vitro ornamental products of Erycina pusilla. The simulated transportation of in vitro Erycina pusilla lasted under the range of 15-30℃ and darkness for a week without losing its quality. For the simulated transportation in darkness for 4 weeks, the suitable storage temperature is 20-25℃. More abortive flower buds resulting from 4-week dark treatment in 15-30℃was recorded. In addition, severe browning leaves and browning flower stalks were observed on plants with 4-week darkness at 30℃. As for the practical transportation, severe damage of broken culture medium and plant displacement from shipment handling and transportation resulted in no intact ornamental products. Moreover, the low temperature around 10℃ during winter caused serious deterioration of browning and flower production. More factors such as preventing serious vibration, contamination problem, unknown environmental change, and Customs quarantine should be considered to avoid the loss in practical transportation.
According to these experiments, flower regulation and transportation for 1 to 4 weeks could be applied on in vitro Erycina pusilla. These finding showed that Erycina pusilla is an ideal plant material for developing in vitro ornamental product of orchid.
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