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標題: 歐巴馬時期美澳同盟關係之研究(2009年-2012年)
Study on the US-Australia Alliance during the Obama Administration,2009-2012
作者: 沈聿子
Shan, Yu-Tzu
Contributors: 蔡明彥
Ming-Yen Tsai
國際政治研究所
關鍵字: 同盟;美澳關係;美澳軍事合作;亞太戰略
alliance;US-Australia relationship;US-Australia military cooperation;Asia-Pacific strategy
日期: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-11-19 12:06:23 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 國際政治研究所
摘要: 在二十一世紀中,亞太地區無疑是國際社會矚目的焦點。美國透過與友邦的軍事和外交合作,在此區域保有它全球領導的地位。結束在中東地區的戰事之後,美國將軍隊部署的重心漸漸東移至亞洲。地理位置位於西太平洋島鏈末端的澳洲,在美國全球戰略布局上占有重要地位。要研究亞太地區的變化與未來發展,美澳同盟是一個值得關注的議題。
澳洲是美國在亞太地區的重要盟友之一。美國與澳洲是在二次大戰期間首次結為同盟,以對抗日本侵略。九一一恐怖攻擊事件發生之後,澳洲政府啟用冷戰期間所簽訂的《美澳紐美安全條約》出兵伊拉克,以實際行動支持美國。澳洲關心國際事務,不但藉由美澳同盟加強國家安全、尋求共同利益,還積極參與ASEAN、APEC和TPP等國際組織,努力與亞洲國家對話。對澳洲而言,藉由美澳同盟參與亞太事務,可以使得澳洲在亞太區域的地位更加重要。
本研究著手探討歐巴馬時期的美澳同盟關係,並從外部和內部因素進行觀察。加強美澳同盟的三項外在威脅因素為:全球反恐合作、中國崛起和海運航線安全。凝聚美澳同盟合作力量的三項內在因素則涵括:歷史文化與意識形態、價值觀與民意的態度,以及雙方領導人的立場。接著再從四個方面,觀察美澳同盟合作的現況與發展:即軍事行動與情報的合作、基地設施的共享,以及美澳與其它國家的多邊軍事合作關係。
最後,文中討論美澳同盟目前存在的困境、中國之回應,和澳洲內部對同盟戰略的調整。在研究中發現,美國與澳洲的交流已經從傳統政治和軍事領域,逐漸深化至非傳統議題範圍。而美澳同盟的未來發展如何,仍有待後續觀察與研究。
It goes without saying that the Asia-Pacific region is under the spotlight of international societies in 21 century. By furthering her military and diplomatic cooperation with allies, the United States remains her leadership here. After the Afghanistan war and Iraq war, the United States has been shifting her strategic focus and military deployment toward Asia-Pacific region. Located at the end of island chain in Western Pacific Ocean, Australia has a great significance on US’s global strategy. Hence, the US-Australia Alliance is a issue of concern, when we study the development and changes of the Asia-Pacific region''s future.
Australia is one of the important allies of the United States in Asia-Pacific region. To combat Japan’s invasion during WWⅡ, the United States formed the alliance with Australia for the first time. After 911, Australia dispatched her expeditionary force to Iraq to support the United States in accordance with ANZUS, which was signed during the cold war. By becoming proactively involved in international organizations such as the ASEAN, APEC, and TPP, Australia seeks to foster cooperation with Asia-Pacific nations to protect her communal interests and reinforce her national security with the support from the United States. The US-Australia alliance is an exceptional stepping stone for Australia to become more involved in Asia-Pacific nations affairs and thus makes Australia’s strategic role more significant.
The study was to explore the US-Australia relation during the Obama administration, from the external and the internal factors. There are three major external factors threat to the US-Australia alliance: global cooperation on Anti-Terror, the rise of China, and navigation safety. On the other hand, there are three major internal factors to strengthen the US-Australia alliance: the communal historic culture and ideology, the democratic values and public opinions, and the standpoints of both leaders. Also, it can have a closer watch on the status quo and the development of the US-Australia alliance from the following viewpoints: the cooperation on military activities and intelligence, the sharing of military bases, the multi-lateral military cooperation between other peripheral nations and the US-Australia ally.
Finally, the study discussed the current predicament, China’s response, and the adjustment of Australia’s strategy of the US-Australia alliance. The study found that the exchanges between the US and Australia have been expanded from political and military fields into non-traditional fields. Therefore, the future development of the US-Australia alliance remains to be researched and observed.
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