Terrorism has become an important part of international security. Since the United States suffered 911 attacks in 2001, the international community has begun to seek a solution to terrorism. EU regional integration is one of the best models in the economic aspect, which has reached the supranational level. However, compared to the success of economic integration, political integration is not as good as people expected.
EU Member States were inspired to begin the cooperation of counter-terrorism after 911. The third pillar which the EU counter-terrorism policy belongs to is called “Justice and Home Affairs Cooperation.” EU organs like European Council, Council of the European Union, and European Commission are the main function of counter-terrorism policy. They provide the Member States a platform to exchange experiences and information on terrorism. Yet, due to justice and home affairs are parts of national sovereignty, countries might follow the EU''s instructions and guidelines, but the obedience depends on countries’ willingness. Accordingly, this paper attempts to explain counter-terrorism policy through the “Intergovernmentalism” doctrine. It discusses the counter-terrorism policies of some Member States, the consensus and controversy of Member States, the willingness of Member States on complying with counter-terrorism policies, and the implementation of counter-terrorism policies.
EU''s counter-terrorism cooperation is a response to the Islamic "global jihad." At first, this paper discusses the development of Islamic radicalism in Europe and how European countries are threatened by the "Global Jihad." Secondly, this paper probes the EU Member States’ counter-terrorism policies, as well as their consensus and controversy when they try to establish a common counter-terrorism policy. The paper also arranges the EU counter-terrorism acts and mechanisms since 2001. Moreover, it explores the operational effectiveness and the difficulties of EU enforcement authorities such as European Police Office, the European Judicial Cooperation Unit, and European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at External Borders.