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標題: 施泰納言說理論之探究-以教師口語表達為題
Inquiry into Rudolf Steiner''s Creative Speech- with Concentration on Teacher''s Oral Speech
作者: 張景池
Zhang, Jing-Chi
Contributors: 白慧娟
Hui-Chuan Pai
教師專業發展研究所
關鍵字: 施泰納;人智學;華德福學校;言說;創造力的言說
Rudolf Steiner;Anthroposophy;Waldorf Schools;Speech
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-19 12:07:42 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 教師專業發展研究所
摘要: 本研究聚焦施泰納言說理論的探究,針對魯道夫‧施泰納與瑪麗‧施泰納合著之《言說形構的方法與本質》授權之英譯文本《創造性言說:言詞形構過程》一書進行深入之分析討論,尤其以教師言說訓練與實踐為主要探討。
在這本論述新說話藝術的最後也是最完整作品中,施泰納說明言說如何帶入教學與日常生活中。施泰納以其「人智學」為基礎,主張:聽得見的聲音是內心過程的最終結果。施泰納建議說話者要專注於身體有機體製作聲音的技巧產出之前發生之事。此靈性見解若能應用於教學情境,可重新詮釋教師言說的真實內容。
本論文採用教育詮釋學方法,對施泰納之創造力言說理論進行初步探討,步驟性的研究目的有下列幾項:
一、探索施泰納的生平、相關的歷史文獻、時代與文化背景,以瞭解其言說
理論建構的背景;
二、探討施泰納言說理論的內涵及其實務練習,以瞭解該理論在教學上的實
際運用;
三、最後,研究者進行探究上的總結,將施泰納言說理論探討的心得,提供一般學校教師日常教學言說之參考。

本研究針對施泰納言說理論以教師口語表達為題,進行研究,結果發現:
一、師資是施泰納言說理論建構成功的關鍵,活生生的語言是華德福學校教師追
求的教學專業核心素養;
二、施泰納言說理論具有科學、靈性、藝術與實用的建構動機;
三、施泰納言說理論強調言說前的呼吸調節、用呼吸說話。讓言說器官柔軟流暢、學習聽聲音以重複文雅的談吐、培養清晰自然的言說、形塑聲音的技巧、形構言說的藝術、研究言說的風格中肯地說話、提升言說美感美妙地說話、促進演說藝術、強調言說的同理心與說話的倫理,治療言說的障礙等等;
四、施泰納言說理論的言說練習,取材多元、廣泛、生動與活潑,非常適合教師平時自我鍛鍊口語表達的運用。
研究者依據上述研究發現,連結國內學者致力於教師口語表達的論述,確信施泰納言說理論適合國內一般教師鍛鍊教學口語表達之用。因此,研究者誠懇地呼籲國內教育行政主管機關與師資培育中心,正視教師口語表達的重要性,建構系統化的教師口語表達訓練課程,並且建議現職教師與未來教師們,從一開始,就以培養教師口語表達能力為教師專業素養的主要訴求。
This study focuses on Rudolf Steiner''s Creative Speech Theory proceeding to deeply analyze and discuss the authorized English version "Creative Speech: the Formation Process of the Spoken Word" translated from Rudolf Steiner and Mary Steiner-von Siver''s "Methodik und Wesen der Sprachgestaltung", especially on teacher''s oral speech training and practice within the theory.
In this definite work on a new art of speech, Steiner demonstrates how speech can be brought to everyday lives and teaching. Steiner''s argument, based upon "Anthro-
posophy", is that the audible sound of speech is the end result of an inner process. Steiner advises the speaker to concentrate on what takes place before the mechanical production of sound is made in the physical organism. Such a spiritual vision will renew the annotation of teacher''s oral speech if it is applied in the teaching situations.
This research, with pedagogical hermeneutic method, step by step aims at: first, probing into Rudolf Steiner''s life, the correlative historical documents, and his times and cultural backgrounds to understand how Rudolf Steiner formed the Creative Speech Theory; secondly, enquiring about the content and additional exercises on Rudolf Steiner''s Creative Speech Theory to realize its actual application in teaching; finally, positively extracting Rudolf Steiner''s Creative Speech Theory to provide some suggestions on speech in everyday''s teaching for the educators of ordinary schools in Taiwan.
The research, concentrating on teacher''s oral speech, results in some findings as follows: first, a qualified teacher is the key factor of successful theorization on
Steiner''s Creative Speech, and the spoken and living word is one''s general capacity and disposition as a result of long and regular self-discipline for the teachers in Waldorf schools; secondly, Steiner''s Creative Speech theorization is provided with scientific, spiritual, artistic, and practical motives; thirdly, Steiner''s Creative Speech Theory concentrates on regulating the breath before speaking, speaking with breath, making the organs of speech supple and flexible, learning to hear the sounds and repeating what is well spoken, nurturing clear and natural speech, molding the sounds into forms, forming the art of speech, studying speech styles to speak properly, raising the aesthetic feeling of speech to speak beautifully, promoting speech art to speak well, intensifying speech empathy and ethics to speak correctly, and even treating speech impediments, etc; finally, they obtained so many multifaceted, widespread, animated, and living datum for the exercises on Steiner''s Creative Speech practices that can be applied to develop teacher''s usual oral speech capacity.
According to the findings above in connection with the treatments on teacher’s oral speech to which native scholars devoted, the researcher firmly believes Steiner''s Creative Speech Theory can be applied in developing everyday teaching oral speech capacity for native teachers in ordinary schools. Thus, the researcher heartily appeals to the government and domestic Centers for Teacher Education for confronting the effect of teacher''s oral speech and offering systematic teacher''s oral speech discipline programs as soon as possible, and honestly recommend the actual and future teachersto educate themselves from developing teacher''s oral speech capacity and disposition, from the very first.
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