蒙古地處於中俄之間的內陸小國，因其特殊的地理位置，不管在國內外政治、經濟、國家安全等方面往往都受到兩強鄰的影響。自1921年蒙古獨立後，蒙古積極與蘇聯合作建立「準同盟」關係。至第二次世界大戰結束後，蒙古進一步採取對蘇的「一邊倒」戰略。蘇聯解體後，蒙古國內政局發生劇烈變化，導致其對外戰略也進行根本性調整，開始實施「不結盟、多支點」的對外政策。蒙古透過其「避險」策略展現出務實和靈活的特色。一方面基於歷史傳統、地緣政治和經濟實惠的原因，優先發展與中、俄兩大鄰國的關係；另一方面，為避免在戰略上受制於中、俄、因此致力於發展與西方，尤其是美國以及國際組織之間的全面合作關係，努力在各大國相互競爭和制約的「漩渦」中力保蒙古本國的安全、穩定和發展。 Mongolia is a landlocked country between China and Russia, either external or internal politics, economics and security are always affected by these both countries. Since Mongolia became independent in 1921, it started to develop “quasi-alliance” relations with the Soviet Union. Until the Second World War ended, Mongolia and Soviet Union became close allies. After the end of the Cold War, Mongolia polity was facing an acute tranformation. Mongolia started to develop a new “non-aligned, multi-pillar” foreign policy to guarantee its politics, economic and security. By taking the “hedging”strategy, Mongolia had showed the characters of pragmatism and flexiblility. On the one part, based on the historical traditional, geo-political and economic benefits, Mongolia needs to maintain friendly relations with Russia, China; on the other part, to avoid being controled by China and Russia, Mongolia need to cooperate comprehensively with U.S, East Asian countries, and international organizations, to protect its national security and development.