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標題: 臺中市都市發展與流域空間變遷之研究─從日治時期到2010年
The study of the connection between Taichung City development and the change of river basin, since Japanese-ruled period to 2010
作者: 顏良純
Yan, Liang- Chun
Contributors: 蔡岡廷
Kang-Ting Tsai
景觀與遊憩碩士學位學程
關鍵字: 都市發展;流域空間變遷;河川
Urban development;the change of the river basin;river
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-19 12:32:46 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 景觀與遊憩碩士學位學程
摘要: 臺中市為日治時期最早進行市區改正都市之一,都市發展自日治時期開始萌芽,臺灣光復後大量人口湧入臺灣都市,臺中市人口快速成長,既有市區空間已不敷使用,遂臺中市開始實施新的都市計畫。臺中市為多河川之城市,市內河川受都市發展甚鉅,自日治時期就有綠川、柳川的改道工程,隨都市發展人口聚集都市,臺中市政府為保障人民生命財產安全,進行境內多條河流整治,岸邊堤防高築,原有河道被填埋、縮減,造成流域空間之改變。
本研究透過日治時期至近代之都市發展政策與臺中市內部結構之改變探討臺中市都市發展之脈絡,以人口、產業與耕地變遷資料探討其都市發展過程,結果發現臺中市的都市發展受時代背景影響,臺中市因殖民政策形成中部政經中心,而日治時期臺中市以發展二、三級產業為主,但工業受限於殖民政策,主要為食品加工業等輕工業。至光復後經濟政策為以農業扶植工業,臺中市因轄區之擴大產業結構轉變,光復之初為三級產業最高、一級產業次之,最末為二級產業,直到民國60年代政府開始推動工業政策,臺中市產業結構再度轉變,朝向工、商業為主之都市,產業結構轉變導致耕地面積減少,農地變更為都市計畫用地,都市河川機能轉變為排水功能,導致流域之變遷。
本研究利用不同年代之圖資,進行不同時期之流域套疊分析,結果發現臺中市之流域空間轉變,是隨著都市發展河川機能性之改變而轉變,都市高度化發展導致都市土地不透水面增加,臺中市河川轉型為都市型河川,流域越加重視排水功能,遂臺中市內河川走向區域排水與人工化溝渠。
本研究發現流域變遷之內涵為人類社會對河川之使用方式改變,當農業社會轉變為都市社會導致河川的機能從民生與農業灌溉使用轉變為排水功能,河川的角色從城市之起源轉變為都市發展之阻礙,為促進都市之發展便整治河川為人工化渠道、進行加蓋與改道。近代民眾開始重視生態與永續發展,而過去之流域整治欠缺人文觀點之思考觀點,未來應在工程導向融合人文思考,以利都市與流域之共存共榮。
Taichung City is one of the cities carried out Urban Rectification during Japanese Governance, whose urban development sprouted from Japan-ruled period. After the Restoration, 1945, a large number of population flooded into the cities, and the population of Taichung grew rapidly, which caused the shortage of the existing urban space. Hence, the new metropolis plan was brought into force in Taichung city. Rivers distribute over Taichung city, and the river lines were deeply affected by the urban development. Since the Japanese governance period, the course-changing constructions were applied to Green River and Liu Chuan. Under the urban development, people started to gather in cities. Taichung government, in order to safeguard the asset and lives of citizens, proceeded to manage several rivers: diked the rivers, full and cut down the original routes, which changed the river basin accordingly.
This study from Japan-ruled period to the modern urban period , which investigates urban development policies and the change in the internal structure of Taichung City to understand Taichung City''s urban development context, and which uses population, industry and cultivated field change data to explore the process of urban development. Because of the age of Taichung urban development background and colonial policy formation in central Taichung, Taichung City became the political and economic center. And Japan-ruled period Taichung City developed Secondary and Tertiary industrial sectors, but the industry was subject to colonial policies, mainly for the food processing industry and other light industries. After the Retrocession, the economic policies is foster industry through agriculture, because the area of Taichung City to expand, the industrial structural changed. At the beginning of the Restoration, the highest was Tertiary industrial sectors, then Primary industrial sectors, followed by the last of Secondary industrial sectors. Until the 1970s the government began promoting industrial policy, Taichung industrial structure changed again, and Taichung City became industrial and business urban. The industrial structure changed resulting reduction of cultivated field, and the agricultural land use changed to urban planning, and the urban river functions changed to drainage function, because of the reasons, the river basin of Taichung City changed. 
In this study, the use of the map data from different years for different periods of the river basin overlay analysis, and found the river basin space in Taichung City transformation is along with the urban development and the river functional changes. The highly urbanization of Taichung City leads to the impervious surface increasing, and Taichung river basin transformed urbanization-river. When the river basins stress the drainage function, then the rivers become the regional drainage and artificial ditches.
According to the study, the result is the river basin in space without too obvious changes. The change is the use of human society on the river way. When the agricultural society into urban society, resulting from the functioning of river livelihood and agricultural irrigation use into a drainage function, and rivers originated from the city''s role in urban development into the hamper, to promote the development of urban, the river improvements are towards to artificial channels.
Modern people began to notice ecology and sustainable development, while in the past the lack of humanistic perspective in river basin improvements. In the future, the engineering river improvements should integration of humanistic thinking to facilitate the coexistence the urban and the river basin.
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