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標題: 都市開放空間熱舒適性與使用者行為之觀察與探討
Observation and discussion of thermal comfort and the user behavior in urban open spaces
作者: 連筱琪
Lien, Hsiao-Chi
Contributors: 林子平
Tzu-Ping Lin
景觀與遊憩碩士學位學程
關鍵字: 熱舒適;熱適應;行為模式;都市開放空間
thermal comfort;thermal adaptation;behavior pattern;urban open space
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-19 12:32:54 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 景觀與遊憩碩士學位學程
摘要:   近年來由於對休閒遊憩需求的提升,民眾會在都市開放空間活動,戶外熱環境對人的感受與偏好有密切的關係,進而影響戶外空間的使用。過去許多有關熱舒適的研究證實了在戶外廣場或公園中,溫度直接影響公共空間的使用者參與人數,由此可知,舒適的熱環境對於都市開放空間就顯得極為重要。
  本研究透過動態微觀的行為模式觀查法,為了瞭解微氣候對人們遊憩空間、熱舒適與調適行為的影響,針對位於臺灣台中市之國立自然科學博物館戶外庭園的DNA模型階梯休憩區進行微氣候物理環境量測、攝影紀錄與使用者動態行為觀察。目的是為討論在都市開放空間中,若同時存在日照及陰影區域時,不同季節、年齡、性別、遊憩目的等,人們對於這兩種區域之休憩位置的選擇、停留的時間、以及從事的動態與靜態活動是否有所關聯或是差異性。
  研究結果發現民眾會優先選擇在樹蔭下或是有遮蔽的陰影處休憩,顯示在溼熱氣候區的台灣,民眾由於過去的氣候經驗和預期心理,產生對日照的偏好程度不同於溫帶國家的人們,說明了不同氣候區的人們會因為對於熱環境的經驗、期待與認知等因素,產生對熱舒適與適應性的差異。再者,探討民眾的休憩行為模式與戶外熱環境之關係,在日照處民眾較容易有短時間動態的行為,反之,在陰影處則能有靜態且長時間停留的行為。結果顯示在不同的季節與休憩區域,人們可能因為生理上的舒適度與心理的適應性而產生不同的行為模式,人們對開放空間的涼爽與遮蔭之偏好,在高溫情況下愈為顯著。本研究預期成果將可做為未來戶外空間規劃與設計之參考,以提高都市開放空間的使用率。
Recently, people spend their leisure time in urban open spaces because of the increasing requirements of recreational activities. Thermal environments are closely related to people’s perceptions and preferences and influence the use of outdoor spaces. Many previous studies have confirmed that the temperature directly affect the number of users to public spaces such as plaza and park. Consequently, comfortable thermal environments have become extremely important in urban open spaces.
This study aims to investigate the microscopic behavior pattern concept method, in order to understand the micro-climate on people''s recreation space, thermal comfort and adaptation behavior, for in Taichung, Taiwan''s National Museum of Natural Science model of DNA ladder outdoor garden sitting area microclimate physical environment measurements, records and photographic observation of the dynamic behavior of the user. Purpose is to discuss the open space in the city, if the sunshine and shadow areas exist, the different seasons, age, sex, and other recreational purposes, people open area for both the choice of location, residence time, and in the dynamic whether the activities to be associated with static or differences.
The results showed that people will prefer shade or shelter in the shadow of rest, are displayed in the hot and humid climate zones in Taiwan, people because of past experience and anticipated psychological climate, sunshine produce different degree of preference for people in temperate countries, illustrates the different climatic zones because of the thermal environment people experience, expectations and cognitive factors produce differences in thermal comfort and adaptability. Furthermore, the study of people and outdoor recreational behavior of the thermal environment relations in the sunshine at people more likely to have short-term dynamic behavior, on the contrary, in the shade and is able to have a long stay static behavior. The results are displayed in different seasons and sitting area, one might as physical comfort and psychological adaptation and produce different patterns of behavior, people with open space cool shade of preference, at high temperatures is more significant. Expected results of this study will be used as outdoor space planning and design future reference, in order to improve the utilization of urban open space.
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