Outdoor recreation visitors were different and may be differentiated from values, personal characteristics and life courses. Jackson (2005) advocated that constraint research may point to the truly demands of visitors. In concert with buttom-up perspective, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationships of visitors’ values, vacation lifestyle and leisure constraints.
This study attempted to establish a conceptual model of values, vaction lifestyle
and leisure constraints in the context of forest recreation. We examined the causal relationships of values, vacation lifestyle and leisure constraints for visitors to Basianshan and Aowanda National Forest Recreation Areas in central Taiwan. A total of 777 valid questionnaires were obtained through onsite face-to-face survey from July 29th to September 3rd at Basianshan, and from18th August to 23th October at Aowanda. Based on the results, conclusions were drawn as below:
1. The characteristics of visitors were significantly different between Basianshan and Aowanda . For instance, the socio-demographics such as gender, age, marital status, occupation, education and personal income were different.
2. Using structural equation modeling analysis, the finding indicated an acceptable
fit in the overall, Basianshn and Aowanda models.
3. The results showed that visitors’ values significantly and positively influenced leisure lifestyle and leisure constraints. Further, visitor’s leisure constraints were
also significantly and positively influenced by leisure lifestyle as well.
The visitors with higher perception of specific values tended to show positive vacation lifestyles and tended to perceive constraints. For example, visitor with higher hedonistic values tended to more concern their accommodation, and those who with higher safety concern, pay more attention on outdoor safety.
In order to enchnace better forest recreation experience, managers should pay more attention on visitor values, such as from safety, hedonism and respect perspective. The research implications were also provided for better visitor management of national forest recreation areas so as to promote more positive leisure lifestyle and reduce constraints. Finally, the recommendations for future research were included.