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標題: 鵝鑾鼻蔓榕物候與族群遺傳多樣性之研究
Phenology and Population Genetic Variation of Ficus pedunculosa var. mearnsii
作者: 邱于庭
Chiu, Yu-Ting
Contributors: 曾喜育
森林學系所
關鍵字: 鵝鑾鼻蔓榕;恆春半島;物候;基因流;遺傳變異;遺傳距離
Ficus pedunculosa Miq. var. mearnsii (Merr.) Corner;Hengchun Peninsula;phenology;sexual differentiation;gene flow;genetic variation;genetic distance
日期: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-11-19 12:37:44 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 森林學系所
摘要: 本研究針對恆春半島青蛙石步道和佳樂水地區珊瑚礁岩之鵝鑾鼻蔓榕 (Ficus pedunculosa Miq. var. mearnsii (Merr.) Corner) 進行物候調查,探討不同生育地的鵝鑾鼻蔓榕之物候差異、雌雄株族群葉候和榕果生產策略及榕果生產與展、落葉之關係。在恆春半島青蛙石步道上,物候調查自2009年9月至2012年3月止,佳樂水地區自2010年5月至2012年3月止,調查間隔約2週。結果顯示,2地區鵝鑾鼻蔓榕雌、雄株族群之物候呈明顯季節性差異,展、落葉與榕果產量具明顯的季節性波動。在青蛙石步道,2性別成熟葉量和總榕果生產量與平均氣溫呈顯著正相關;佳樂水地區,成熟葉量與2氣象因子沒有顯著相關,2性別總榕果生產量與平均氣溫呈顯著正相關,僅雄株族群與降雨有顯著相關。顯示不同生育地不同性別,在成熟葉和總榕果生產上對2氣象因子有不同的反應現象。調查期間2生育環境雌株族群平均果季數皆小於雄株族群,分析結果顯示2者在果季數上沒有顯著的差異。在榕果葉量比方面,2生育環境的雄株於調查期間常高於雌株,顯示成熟葉量相當時,雄株可維持較多的榕果生產;分析結果顯示2者之榕果葉量比呈明顯的性別差異。
採取鵝鑾鼻蔓榕台灣7個自然分佈族群以雌雄性別分開取樣共採210株樣本,應用簡單序列重覆分子指紋技術 (inter simple sequence repeats, ISSR) 來分析台灣恆春半島、東部和蘭嶼、綠島之族群遺傳結構及族群間親緣關係。共使用8個引子 (primer)。POPGENE分析的結果雌、雄和總族群其Nei’s 族群基因歧異度 (H) 分別為0.3028、0.2729、0.3196,族群間之遺傳分化係數 (Gst) 為0.2257、0.1894、0.1194,總族群基因流 (Nm) 為1.8437,顯示族群遺傳分化小且不明顯。由族群分子變方分析 (AMOVA) 結果,無論將地理區域如何分群,族群內個體間所佔的變方成分相當高,顯示族群主要遺傳變異係存於族群內個體間。歸群分析結果雌、雄和總族群皆可分為2群,以恆春半島族群成一群,東部和蘭嶼綠島之族群集成另一群。Mantel test 結果顯示鵝鑾鼻蔓榕族群間之地理距離與遺傳距離均不顯著,代表其族群為隨機分佈,因此,遺傳漂變在族群分化上扮演較重要之角色。綜言之,鵝鑾鼻蔓榕族群基因流傳暢通,不同地域間具有不明顯地分化現象,主要遺傳變異係存於族群內個體間。
將青蛙石步道物候的距離矩陣和遺傳距離間,經Mantel檢定的結果顯示在相同植株上觀察其生理上物候的反應和利用ISSR所得的基因結構2者方面,在2性別族群下皆未能獲得2者間具有相關的現象。
The research focused on the Phenology of Ficus pedunculosa Miq. var. mearnsii (Merr.) Corner at Cingwashih Trail and Jialeshuei in the Hengchun Peninsula. The goal of the investigation was to generate phenologic analysis of Ficus pedunculosa Miq. var. mearnsii (Merr.) Corner based on the different habitats, sexual differentiated in sexual populations phenology, syconium productive strategy, and the relationship of fig and leaf. The study ran from September 2009 to March 2012 at Cingwashih Trail and from May 2010 to March 2012 at Jialeshuei. The study indicated that, in both locations, there are significant seasonal differences in the phenology for each gender of F. pedunculosa Miq. var. mearnsii (Merr.) Corner, and the leaf phenology showed seasonal changes. According to Kendall’s rank correlation analysis, the mature leaves and the fig productions were correlated with temperature at Cingwashih Trail. However, the fig productions for each gender were correlated with temperature and only male trees were correlated with rainfall at Jialeshuei. The mature leaves and the fig productions have different correlated with temperature and rainfall in different habitats. During the observation period, the average corps female trees produced were less than male trees. According to Mann-Whitney test, crop production for each gender showed no sexual differentiation in two different habitats. However, female trees’ average fig/leaf ratio crops were less than male trees’ too. Fig/leaf ratio for each gender have obviously sexual differentiation.
Using the techniques of Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) fingerprints, we examined the genetic variation and relationship of F. pedunculosa Miq. var. mearnsii (Merr.). We collected 210 samples of F. pedunculosa Miq. var. mearnsii (Merr.) from 7 natural areas. Eight ISSR primers were used to proceed the reaction test of PCR and 8 primers were obtained. Population genetic (POPGENE) analysis revealed that total gene diversity (H) was 0.3028、0.2729、0.3196 for each gender and total population. Genetic index (Gst) was 0.2257、0.1894、0.1194 for each gender and total population, while gene flow index (Nm) was1.8437 for total population. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the variance component among individuals within population were high. The results also indicated that the major variation existed among individuals within populations. The result of UPGMA cluster analysis showed that Hengchun Peninsula could be classified as a group; Lanyu, Green Inland and Eastern Taiwan’ population fell into a group. Since the Mantel test results showed that F. pedunculosa Miq. var. mearnsii (Merr.) populations geographic distance and genetic distance have no significant impact, this indicated the populations are randomly distributed. Therefore, the genetic drift group differentiation played a important role. To sum up, the F. pedunculosa Miq. var. mearnsii (Merr.) the major variation existed among individuals within populations.
Moreover, the results of the mantel test for the phenological distance matrix and genetic distance at Cingwashih Trail showed two were not related.
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