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National Chung Hsing University Institutional Repository - NCHUIR > 農業暨自然資源學院 > 園藝學系 > 依資料類型分類 > 碩博士論文 >  養液氮、鉀濃度及畦面覆蓋對胡瓜‘夏笛’生長發育及果實品質之影響

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nchuir.lib.nchu.edu.tw/handle/309270000/154099

標題: 養液氮、鉀濃度及畦面覆蓋對胡瓜‘夏笛’生長發育及果實品質之影響
Effects of Different Nitrogen and Potassium Concentration, and Mulching on Growth and Fruit Quality of Cucumber ‘Hsia Di’ in Soilless Culture
作者: 鍾其展
Chung, Chi-Chan
Contributors: 李文汕
園藝學系所
關鍵字: 胡瓜;氮肥;鉀肥;覆蓋;養液栽培
Cucumber;Nitrogen;Potassium;Mulching;Soilless culture
日期: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-11-19 12:47:09 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 園藝學系所
摘要: 本試驗目的為探討養液中不同氮、鉀肥濃度對胡瓜植株生長及果實品質之影響,以期建立正確之養液管理模式,提高胡瓜品質與產量。
試驗一於2010年11月進行,以胡瓜‘夏笛’為試驗材料,山崎養液胡瓜配方為基礎(control),將氮肥濃度分為150、200、250 ppm,與鉀肥濃度240、340、440 ppm,組合成九種處理進行試驗栽培。結果顯示,將氮肥濃度由150 ppm提升至250 ppm,能增進葉片及果實氮含量、提升24%葉綠素含量指標、以及10%栽培後期的光合作用速率,並縮短開花至採收的時間、促進果實可溶性固形物含量提升10%,不過高氮肥也會造成果皮顏色的L、C值的下降;240 ppm鉀肥處理植株有出現鉀缺乏的現象,隨著鉀肥濃度的提升,能增進葉片及果實內的鉀濃度、後期果實乾重比例、以及提升果實抗壞血酸含量13%及22%,增進果實品質,不過高鉀肥會也使得雌花數及中期果硬度降低,以及葉片及果實內鈣、鎂離子的含量下降。不過,養液中氮、鉀肥濃度的改變對於果實硝酸鹽含量、總產量以及可售果率無顯著影響。
試驗二於2011年4月進行,以胡瓜‘夏笛’為試驗材料,四種處理的氮、鉀肥濃度分別為N150K240、N200K440、N250K340以及對照組的N200K240,再分別進行覆蓋與不覆蓋處理,組合成八種處理進行試驗栽培。結果顯示,對照組的生長勢在栽培後期衰退的很快,提升鉀肥有助於減緩;相較於對照組,N250K340處理有較高的植株生長速率,並能提升25%葉綠素含量指標、增進28%後期果產量,在特級果數上高於對照組31%,且果實硝酸鹽含量無顯著增加。覆蓋處理對植株生長及果實品質影響不顯著,影響最大的為介質EC值,使用覆蓋處理能有效減緩10%的EC值累積,避免作物受到鹽害影響。不過,在產量及可售果率上,不同養液處理及覆蓋與否則無顯著差異。
綜合上述,提升養液中氮肥濃度至250 ppm能增進胡瓜‘夏笛’植株生長發育,增進同化作用產物的累積;提升鉀肥濃度至340 ppm就能增進果實品質,再往上增加反而對植株生長及果實品質有負面效果。在環境溫度較高的栽培季節,使用覆蓋處理能有效減緩鹽分累積,對果實品質也有所助益,因此氮肥濃度250 ppm、鉀肥濃度340 ppm的組合,在夏季栽培搭配覆蓋處理,最能達到本試驗的目的。
In order to establish a valid management of culture solution that can raise the quality and quantity of cucumbers, effects of different concentrations of nitrigen and potassium on fruits growing were studied in cucumbers.
At Experiment One, cucumbers ‘Hsia Di’ were grown at culture solutions which used Shan-Chi solution as control, and separated nitrigen concentration to 150, 200, 250 ppm and potassium concentration to 240, 340, 440 ppm, which made 9 treatments to experiment at Nov. 2010. Results indicated that treatment of nitrigen 250 ppm in Shan-Chi solution had effects on increasing nitrigen concentration in leaves and fruits. Chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rate and fruit total soluble solids (TSS) were enhanced and maturity was curtailed as the nitrigen concentration in solution increased, but the L, C value of fruits color were decreased at high nitrigen concentration. Results showed that treatment of potassium 240 ppm in Shan-Chi solution had effects that lack of potassium. Both the concentration of potassium in leaves and fruits and the concentration of ascorbic acid in fruits were increased as the potassium concentration in solution increased, and that enhance the dry weight ratio and fruit quality, too. The concentration of calcium and magnesium in leaves and fruits were decreased and the amounts of female flowers were decreased as in high potassium concentration in solution. The effects of different concentrations of nitrigen and potassium in culture solution to the amount of fruits and the ratio of marketable fruits were not obvious.
Experiment Two treated different concentration between nitrigen and potassium as N150K240, N200K440, and N250K340, and used N200K240 as control, and also treated the experiments between with and without mulches. Results indicated that the increased of potassium in Shan-Chi solution can retard the decline at the late stage of growth to control. The growth rate was higher with N250K340 treatment and Chlorophyll content, amount of late stage fruit were also enhanced, but the nitrate concentration in fruits was not obvious increased. The effect of mulched were not outstanding, that the retard of the 10% EC to accumulate is the most effected work. The effects of different treatments and mulch or not to the amount of fruits and the ratio of marketable fruits were not obvious.
In conclusion, the treatment of nitrigen 250 ppm in culture solution had effects to enhance the growth and development of cucumber ‘Hsia Di’ and promote the accumulation of assimilation products. The treatment of potassium 340 ppm in culture solution had effects to enhance fruit quality, the effects of growth and fruit quality were decreased when the concentration of potassium were higher than 340 ppm. The accumulation of EC could be retarded by mulched at high temperature, and can enhance the fruit quality. The treatment of nitrigen 250 ppm and potassium 340 ppm with mulch in summer is the most effective treatment for cucumbers ‘Hsia Di’ to grow.
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