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National Chung Hsing University Institutional Repository - NCHUIR > 農業暨自然資源學院 > 園藝學系 > 依資料類型分類 > 碩博士論文 >  馬祖東引鄉原生換錦花(石蒜科)之分類、生態 與繁殖研究

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nchuir.lib.nchu.edu.tw/handle/309270000/154100

標題: 馬祖東引鄉原生換錦花(石蒜科)之分類、生態 與繁殖研究
Studies of Taxonomy, Ecology and Propagation of Lycoris sprengeri Comes ex Baker (Amaryllidaceae) Native to Dongyin, Matsu
作者: 彭俊翰
Peng, Chun-Han
Contributors: 張正
園藝學系所
關鍵字: 石蒜屬;換錦花;生態;分類
Lycoris;Lycoris sprengeri;ecology;taxonomy
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-19 12:47:12 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 園藝學系所
摘要: 換錦花(Lycoris sprngeri Comes ex Baker)隸屬於石蒜科(Amaryllidaceae)石蒜屬,為鱗皮鱗莖(tunicate bulb)類球根植物。具有見花不見葉的特殊習性,即所謂的花後生葉(hysteranthous flowering),屬春出葉型,葉期2-5月。筒狀花,花色粉紅,花被片末端帶藍色為其重要特徵,花期8-9月。原生於長江中下游的湖北、安徽、江蘇、上海與浙江等地。馬祖東引鄉因早期戰地政務的關係,開發較少,北海岸保有原始植被,留存大面積換錦花族群。本研究於東引鄉調查並標記7個換錦花棲地,於東引島小紫澳、紫澳與西引島東澳、后澳、清水澳5個棲地設立樣區進行週年性的換錦花與伴生植物調查。換錦花伴生植物種類豐富,超過29種,為低矮草本及藤本植物,季節性演替鮮明。
馬祖植物誌記載東引鄉原生石蒜屬植物有換錦花與紅花石蒜二種,本研究中依形態、葉期等特徵進行鑑別,發現有兩者天然雜交種,即玫瑰石蒜(Lycoris × rosea Traub & Moldenke)與紅藍石蒜(Lycoris × haywardii Traub)。東引鄉原生換錦花花形花色變化豐富,同時具有非換錦花典型的特徵單株,如花被片先端反捲,白化種等。天然雜交種群玫瑰石蒜與紅藍石蒜(Lycoris × haywardii Traub)形態變化大,可依花形與雄蕊突出花被片程度來區分此兩種。東引鄉原生石蒜單株之雙鱗片繁殖效率再生率介於63-98%之間。
換錦花種子成熟期介於9-10月間,種子長7公釐,寬7.3公釐,百粒重17克,亮黑色球形。換錦花種子屬地中發芽型(hypogeal germination),胚根突破種皮後,子葉鞘跟著伸出進入土中,爾後子葉鞘末端膨大形成小鱗莖,小鱗莖成熟後胚根萎縮,由鬚根(fibrous root)取代之,經冬季的低溫後於明年或後年2-3月才抽出第一片葉。20-25℃為其發芽最適溫度,小鱗莖發育佳,而經硝酸鉀與PEG8000滲調處理後可加快發育,並提高發芽率,其中以-1.0 Mpa PEG8000溶液25℃處理5天發芽率可高達97.8%。
由原生地採集的換錦花鱗莖,於6月進行鱗片組織培養汙染率高達78.6%,3、9月相對較低。小鱗莖形成率以3、9月最高,且內層鱗片高於外層鱗片。外層鱗片再生小鱗莖數多於內層鱗片,每個培植體最多可再生3.9個。小鱗莖長度以外層鱗片最長,達17 mm。溫湯處理可有效降低汙染率,但隨處理時間加長提高外層鱗片褐化率。換錦花鱗片所再生的小鱗莖經繼代後馴化出瓶存活率可達100%。並可利用基盤與鱗片再生的小鱗莖等次生培植體進行增殖。
Lycoris sprengeri Comes ex Baker is a species of Amaryllidaceae. Herbs perennial, tunicate bulb. Leaves appearing in early spring. Vegetative growth period in Dongyin is from February to May. Tubular flower; perianth pink but apically blue. Flowering period in Dongyin is from August to September. Lycoris sprengeri is mainly native to provinces along the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, like Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang et al. in China. However, the rapid development of China''s riverside and coastal cities lead to the natural habitat of Lycoris sprengeri change rapidly in decrease of population size. Because of former military administration in Matsu, Dongyin has been lesser developed, and its north coast retains many original vegetation landscape. Thus, Dongyin preserves a large area for Lycoris sprengeri population, which is extremely valuable. Currently, there are nine habitats marked and surveyed in Dongyin, seven of these have Lycoris sprengeri distributed. Five experimental plots were established for annual survey of Lycoris sprengeri and associated plants in these seven habitats. These five experimental plots are Xiaoziao and Ziao in Dongyin island, Dongao, Houao and Qingshuiao in Xiyin island respectively. Associated plant species of Lycoris sprengeri, more than 29 species, are mostly short herbaceous plant and liana. And the seasonal succession of associated plants are obvious.
Originally, only Lycoris sprengeri and Lycoris radiata were thought to be native to Dongyin township. But in our study by morphology, foliage period, other characteristics and on-the-spot investagation, we found the natural hybrid, Lycoris × rosea Traub & Moldenke. And thus we determine there are four Lycoris species native to Dongyin. Lycoris sprengeri native to Dongyin has various flower shapes and colors, but individuals with non-typical features of Lycoris sprengeri were found, like albino individual and flower with reflexed apex of tepals. The shape and color of natural hybrid populations of Lycoris × rosea and Lycoris × haywardii are diverse. Basically, we can distinguish these two species by flower shape and the extent of stamens protruding tepals. There are large differences in efficiency of twin-scale propagation among individuals native to Dongyin, regeneration percentage ranged between 63 to 98 %. Among these individuals, Lycoris × rosea ‘Ly008’ has the highest regeneration percentage (97.7%), and Lycoris sprengeri ‘Ly002’ has the second highest percentage (96.1%).
Seeds of Lycoris sprengeri mature during September to November. The average length of seeds about 7 mm, width about 7.3 mm, hundred-grain weight about 17 g, lustrous black, and ball shape in appearance are the characters of Lycoris sprengeri seed. Lycoris sprengeri is hypogeal germination. After radicle breaking out the seed coat, the coleoptile extends into the soil, and then the end of enlarged coleoptile forms bulblet. When bulblet matures, the radicle will atrophy and be replaced by fibrous roots. The first foliage will appear during Febuary to March after the cold winter in the next year or the year after the next. Optimum temperature for germination is 20 to 25℃, and bulblet grows well. Lycoris sprengeri’s seeds with priming treatment by potassium nitrate and PEG8000 can accelerate development and improve the germination percentage. Seeds with priming treatment at 25 ℃ in -1.0 Mpa PEG8000 solution for 5 days had the highest germination percentage of 97.8%.
Bulb scales from native habitat of Lycoris sprengeri were cultured year-round in order to find the best time for excision. Scales cultured in June gave the highest percentage of contamination. Meanwhile, scales cultured in March and September have the least contamination; they have the hightest percentage of explants producing adventitious buds, and their inner scales gave higher percentage of explants producing adventitious buds than outer scales. The cultured outer scales gave more number of explants producing adventitious buds than inner scales. The highest number of explants producing adventitious buds is 3.9. The cultured outer scales gave the longest length of adventitious buds which is 17 mm. Hot water treatment can effectively reduce the contamination percentage, but with prolonged time of treatment, the browning percentage of outer scales often increase. The bulblets from cultured scales gave high survival percentage to 100% after subculture and acclimation. And secondary explants, such as stem plate and bulblet section, can be effectively used for proliferation culture.
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