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標題: 高爾夫球場常用草坪除草劑施用及流向分析
Application and fate of herbicides commonly used in Golf turf grasses
作者: 廖健佑
You, Liao Chien
Contributors: 王慶裕
農藝學系所
關鍵字: 高爾夫球草坪;百速隆;百慕達草
golf turf;pyrazosulfuron;bermudagrass
日期: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-11-21 11:05:47 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 農藝學系所
摘要: 本研究目的主要是基於〝建議農藥合理使用,降低用量〞的考量,針對高爾夫球場草坪除草劑種類篩選及其減量施用效果評估,利用不同的除草劑及濃度,調查草坪草本草之藥害以及草坪雜草之草相變化與藥效,並進一步評估減量施用之效果。首先於2012年2與4月針對草坪草施用不同種類除草劑(包括伏速隆(flazasulfuron)、合速隆(halosulfuron)、百速隆(pyrazosulfuron)、快克草(quinclorac)及依水田推薦用藥本達隆(bentazon)),以比較不同草坪草(包括百慕達草(bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.))、假儉草(centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.))以及馬尼拉芝(manila grass (Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.))減量施用藥劑之效果,藥劑處理濃度分別是全量(X)、2/3X、1/2X以及不處理做為對照組,發現三種草坪本草以假儉草對於五種除草劑較為敏感,且隨著溫度與光照增加藥害明顯增加,而在除草劑減量施用效果上,則隨著除草劑的施用量減少,草坪的傷害指數也明顯減少,其結果與草坪黃化程度一致。此外,五種除草劑對假儉草的草坪雜草控制效果較佳,處理後三週雜草傷害指數介於3.0-3.8,但隨著光照與溫度的增加,三種草坪草的雜草控制效果明顯上升,且在減量施用效果上與全量(X)施用效果一致。
本研究分別於暖季不同月份(7、9、11月份)針對台灣常見除草劑及推薦使用於百慕達草草坪之除草劑進行測試,發現各除草劑處理三週後,百慕達草草坪皆無明顯藥害發生。另外,暖季五種除草劑中以伏速隆、合速隆及百速隆控制效果較佳,在推薦用量下,五種除草劑引起雜草之傷害指數介於2.4-4.6,控制雜草效果較佳,似乎有部分原因與高溫及強日照有關。在減量施用效果上,發現除快克草外,其餘四種除草劑在七月份減量至1/2X時仍與全量(X)施用效果相同,九月與十一月份則減量1/3X與全量(X)效果相同,在雜草控制效果上,以伏速隆最有減量施用的潛力。
在台灣氣候環境下不同季節(5、8及11月份)利用百慕達草為試驗材料,於處理百速隆後1、3、7、14、21及28天取樣,進一步利用HPLC分析百速隆在百慕達草植株與土壤的殘留量。結果發現隨著處理時間的增加植株百速隆殘留量明顯地減少,其在5、8及11月份之半衰期分別為5.1天、0.8天以及7.2天,顯示其消褪明顯受到溫度與光照影響。此外,不同土壤剖面層土壤中的百速隆殘留濃度變化不大,顯示百速隆在土層0-15 cm的移動速率非常快,在5、8及11月份之半衰期分別為7-12天、8-19天以及14-17天,數值大於地上部結果,草坪層下與土壤在草坪覆蓋下,會延長其半衰期,且較不受溫度與日照影響。
In order to develop a reasonable way of herbicide application, the efficacy and effect of 5 herbicides including bentazone, flazasulfuron, halosulfuron, pyrazosulfuron and quinclorac, especially at reduced rates (2/3X and 1/2X of recommended rate), on weed control in three kinds of turf grasses, i.e., Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.), centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.), and Mmanila grass (Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.) have been estimated. Experiment conducted in Feb. and April, 2012, showed that the centipede grass was more sensitive to 5 herbicides than other two turf grasses, and this injury became more serious with increasing temperature and solar radiation intensity. When herbicide application rates decreased, these damages on centipede grass also reduced.
In addition, weeds in centipede grass turf had been controlled by 5 herbicides, with an injury index ranging from 3.0 to 3.8, and increased with temperature and light intensity.
Further study focused on Bermuda grass turf in warm season (July, Sep. and Nov.) showed that no damages on this turf grass three weeks after 5 herbicide applications, and three sulfonylurea herbicides, i.e., flazasulfuron, halosulfuron, pyrazosulfuron had better weed control effect. Considering the effect of reduced herbicide, 4 herbicides excluded quinclorac all had good weed control effect similar to the full rate of recommended rate as the rate reduced to 1/2X in July, and reduced to 1/3X in Sep. and Nov. Herbicide flazasulfuron showed a potential of reducing rate effect.
Under the climate in Taiwan, residue analysis of pyrazonsulfuron in May, Aug. and Nov. demonstrated that pyrazosulfuron residues on and in shoot of Bermuda grass decreased with time within 28 days, there had half-life values of 5.1, 0.8 and 7.2 days in three months, revealing that this herbicide dissipation was influenced by temperature and solar radiation intensity. In addition, due to the soil layer was covered with grass turf layer, the less influences from temperature and light resulted in the longer half-life of pyrazosulfuron in three different soli layers.
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