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標題: 秦漢導引研究
Study of Tao-Yin in the Chin and Han Dynasties
作者: 王榮民
Wang, Rong-Min
Contributors: 吳昌廉
Chang-Lien Wu
歷史學系所
關鍵字: 導引;導引圖;引書;五禽戲
Tao-Yin;Tao-Yin Tu;Yin-Su;Wu Qin Xi
日期: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-11-21 11:26:58 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 歷史學系所
摘要: 中國養生的方法對於促進人體健康的維護,有著積極意義。其中關於導引,尤其近代出土文獻《引書》和《導引圖》,象徵養生哲學歷史源流來源更早,可以將養生哲學的發展理論更加確立,更豐富我們的知識。是以出土《引書》、《導引圖》和東漢華陀的〈五禽戲〉為討論對象,藉此呈現秦漢導引及其養生思想的發展與變化。雖以秦漢導引為主軸,但對古代養生思想方面也必須有所交代,故有相當篇幅論及健康與養生的思想觀念。
「秦漢導引研究」文分六章:首為緒論,一面說明論文的研究動機與前人研究成果,以彰顯本研究之意義。另一方面呈現本論文的定義與範圍、研究方法、架構、限制和預期成果。
第二章討論導引釋義與源流,係就導引歷史作一論述,從說文解字到古代養生相關書籍,分別詳細陳述。從狹義到廣義,然後將所有關於導引資料作一整合論述。
第三章主要論述《引書》與導引的探討,描述出土《引書》的意義,代表了中國南方文化水準的提升,也代表其與中原文化結合。二重證據法從事學術研究早已成為主流,本章將援引相關文獻為佐證,以充實研究基礎。其中《引書》雖無圖畫資料,但敘述較為完整,是目前出土文獻中最完整的導引書籍;再者,本章從文獻中一一解釋釋文,試圖將《引書》內容,從前輩研究中,更深入研究與探討,期望達至更為完整之境界。可補足馬王堆的《導引圖》缺乏更詳細的文字說明之缺憾。
第四章《導引圖》與導引的探討,先探討出土《導引圖》的意義,再將圖內四十四幅圖解析,期望將《導引圖》術式大致解析,並敘述其動作與治療方式有那些。透過相關導引論述的討論,希望能將論文主題「秦漢導引」與現代生活相連結。本文所研究的《導引圖》不僅年代早,而且內容非常豐富,它使古代文獻中散失不全的多種導引與健身運動找到了最早的圖形資料,對導引的發展、變化研究提供了可貴的線索。
第五章主題在〈五禽戲〉與導引的探討,從華陀〈五禽戲〉的解析,討論是否和出土文獻《引書》、《導引圖》有其相關及連結。再加上目前關於導引的生活化展現論述。過去我們從《三國志》及《後漢書》得知華陀的〈五禽戲〉,但缺乏圖像及詳細文字可供理解,目前最早僅能從《養性延命錄》得知〈五禽戲〉的動作說明。今藉出土考古資料可知〈五禽戲〉有可能源於《導引圖》,且《導引圖》是反映在醫療體育和預防醫學的作用上。再加上《引書》的說明,整個導引養生就更加清楚。最後,當代導引養生的整理,希望「導引」不僅僅是古代的體驗,更是一種現代的養生哲學。
綜合各章所言而提出結論,並說明「秦漢導引」的現代意義和未來的展望。
This research is a “Study of Tao-Yin in the Chin and Han Dynasties”and the evolution of maintaining good health with the reference to 《Yin-Su》,《Tao-Yin Tu》and Hwa-Tou’s 〈Wu Qin Xi〉in Dong-Han dynasty. Most of the research is focused on Tao-Yin while the research illustrates the thinking about maintaining good health in ancient times. The later chapters focus mainly on the ideas of maintaining good health.

Keeping in good health in a chinese way is positive to keeping a human body healthy. Tao-Yin,especially the recentiy excavated works such as《Yin-Su》and《Tao-Yin Tu》,indicates that the philosophy of maintaining good health can be traced back to a mach earlier time and solidifies the theories of the development of it and enrich our knowledge.

The research includes six chapters:Chapter One is an introduction,describing my motivation of this research and previous research. On the other hand, it reveals the definition and domain of this thesis, its research methods, limitations and expected results.

Chapter Two discusses the explaination and origin of Tao-Yin.This Chapter is intended to give a complete description of the history of Tao-Yin. From 《Shuowen Jiezi》to ancient books about keeping in good health, all the references about Tao-Yin will be summarized and illustrated clearly.

Chapter Three mainly describes the meaning of excavation 《Yin-Su》and《Tao-Yin Tu》. They stand for the improvement of the Southern China culture and represent the combination of Chung Yuan culture and the southern culture. So far, the duplicate-evidence method dominates the academic research. This thesis will quote associative documents as a support evidence to enhance this foundation of this research. Although there is no picture record in《Yin-Su》describing completely which is the most complete Tao-Yin book. On the other hand, 《Tao-Yin Tu》belongs to a single picture without words description and sequent movement. It provides a supporting picture and has significant meaningful. Chapter Four is to investigate《Yin-Su》and Tao-Yin. Starting from《Yin-Su》which is more complete excavation Tao-Yin description without any picture evidence. Next, this Chapter explains the notes from the document and try to complete previous studies of《Yin-Su》content.We based on the excavation《Tao-Yin Tu》. There are 44 gymnastic movement pictures with simple notes but not the detailed description. 《Yin-Su》excavated to provides words description. Although it does not describe totally the same, it still provides detailed enough explanation.

Chapter Four is to investigate《Tao-Yin Tu》and Tao-Yin. Starting from 44 analytical pictures, I draw the form by myself to analyze the movement of《Tao-Yin Tu》.This thesis makes Tao-Yin in the Chin and Han Dynasty more daily through the discussion of Tao-Yin.

The research of《Tao-Yin Tu》in this content is early era and very rich. It helps us to find out the picture information for incomplete Tao-Yin and healthy movement. It also provides valuable clues for the development and change of Tao-Yin.

Chapter five focus on the investigation of 〈Wu-Qin Xi〉 and Tao-Yin. Discussing the analysis of〈Wu-Qin Xi〉 in Don-Han Dynasty whether is related to excavation documents《Yin-Su》and《Tao-Yin Tu》. It describes daily parts about Tao-Yin.

In the past, we understand the words description of Hwa-Tou’s〈Wu-Qin Xi〉 from《Records of the Three Kingdoms》and《Later Han》 without explanatory picture. We only can know the movement description from《Health Life Extension Complete Works》. In the present, we can understand〈Wu-Qin Xi〉 probably originating from《Tao-Yin Tu》. 《Tao-Yin Tu》reflects on medical gymnastic and preventive medicine. According to the description of《Yin-Su》, it makes Tao-Yin more clearly. We hope that Tao-Yin is not only ancient experience but also the exhibition of the present healthy philosophy.

Chapter Six summarize all chapters and gives a conclusion. It investigate the present meaning of Tao-Yin in the Chin and Han Dynasty. Finally, it gives the future expectation for the incomplete part in this thesis.
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