本研究旨在探究討論式教學法在國中歷史課堂上的實際應用。本研究以國中三年級世界史『古文明的起源』此一教學單元為例，運用師生互動的討論式教學法進行課程教學。透過課堂上師生互動的討論式教學歷程及課堂紀錄，分析師生互動的討論式教學法在實際教學現場操作時的課堂情境及對學生歷史學習態度和歷史思維的影響。進一步檢討師生互動的討論式教學法，在實際教學的操作時教師應注意的討論技巧和討論內容，以作為現行有限的教學時數下一個實際可行的教學實例。 本研究結論認為師生互動的討論式教學法，確實可以落實在歷史課堂教學上並提升學生的歷史思維能力。透過師生互動的討論式教學法，學生們在師生互動討論的過程中能激發個人歷史思考的能力和表達個人對歷史事件的看法，不再只是被動地接收教師教授的歷史知識，缺乏認真思考歷史問題的能力。 在研究過程中，學生主動提出問題和參與討論的次數，隨著教師的引導和思維習慣的累積，逐次提升。因此，在現行的歷史教學環境下，教師可以嘗試運用師生互動的討論式教學法，透過引導學生討論、思考，建立學生思考的習慣，進一步具備歷史思維的能力。學生透過和教師的互相討論、讓彼此的歷史意識和生命意識互相交會，使歷史學習更貼近現實意識，幫助學生將其在課堂上所習得的歷史思維能力，運用在日常生活的問題解決和待人處事中。 This study is aiming to research the practical implement of discussion method in the history class of junior high school. The study manipulated the example of the instruction of history on the birth of ancient civilization in the third grade of junior high school. It through the teaching process and class records of discussion which is interacted between teacher and students to analyze the influence of history learning attitude and history thinking for students in the class situation of real teaching field. The further discussion that the teacher should notice the discussion skill and discussion content under the manipulation of practical teaching. It is for practical useful for case study of teaching base on the limited of teaching hour at school.
The conclusion of this study prove the discussion method of interaction between teacher and students is certainly useful in history class. The students will be inspired the ability of history thinking and the ability of expression the opinion of history events personally through the discussion method of interaction between teacher and students. The students will not be passive under lacking the ability of thinking in history problems to receive the history knowledge from teacher anymore.
During the studying process, the times of asking questions and participating discussion were enhanced generally by the calculation of guidance and learning manner from the teacher. Therefore , the teacher can lead the discussion, thinking and building the manner by manipulating the discussion method of interaction between teacher and student for students to own the ability of history thinking. The interaction between teacher and students will let the history meaning and life meaning interact each other, the history will come to the reality meaning closely, it helps the students to get and use the ability of historical thinking in class, it also can utilize on problem solving and personal relationship in daily life.