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National Chung Hsing University Institutional Repository - NCHUIR > 文學院 > 歷史學系所 > 依資料類型分類 > 碩博士論文 >  鄉土教育在九年一貫課程下的實踐 —以南投縣竹山鎮社寮國小為例

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nchuir.lib.nchu.edu.tw/handle/309270000/154958

標題: 鄉土教育在九年一貫課程下的實踐 —以南投縣竹山鎮社寮國小為例
The Fulfillment of Local Education in Grade 1-9 Curriculum—with a Case Study of the Sheliao Elementary School in Zhushan Township of Nantou County
作者: 柯雪紅
Ko, Hsueh-Hung
Contributors: 孟祥瀚
歷史學系所
關鍵字: 鄉土教育;鄉土意識;在地化;本土化;九年一貫
local education,;local consciousness;Grade 1-9 Curriculum
日期: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-11-21 11:27:21 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 歷史學系所
摘要: 摘要
本文討論臺灣鄉土教育的發展,分析臺灣國民小學社會科課程標準和九年一貫社會領域課程綱要的演進,發現解嚴是鄉土教育實施的分水嶺,解嚴前在一元化的教育體制下,教育目標與教育內容由政府鉅細靡遺的層層規範,為契合「反共復國」的基本國策,國民小學加強民族精神教育一直是教育的主要方針。教科書一律由國家指定的國立編譯館統一編印發行,教材內容偏重在中國史、政治史的部份,地方的聲音完全被壓抑。
1970年代,面對一連串外交上的挫敗,臺灣自決獨立的意識日益滋長,引發一股關懷本土社會、文化,探索臺灣的歷史的研究風氣。歷經一場鄉土文學論戰,臺灣意識逐漸被塑造,文學的筆觸漸由中國民族主義的宣揚轉移至臺灣在地鄉土的關照。解嚴後,政治逐漸走向民主化、本土化,這股「在地化」、「本土化」的風潮不久蔓延到教育體系,民進黨籍立法委員針對臺灣教育本土化陸續通過各項法案,內容包括母語教育的實施、以臺灣為主體的史觀、增加教科書教材臺灣的論述篇幅、臺灣歷史、文學、地理的定位等。教育部為回應改革的要求,修訂各級學校課程標準及開放教科書審定等以為因應。
1993年公布新的國民小學課程標準之後,「鄉土教學活動」獨立設科,包括鄉土語言、鄉土歷史、鄉土地裡、鄉土自然、鄉土藝術五大綱要,每週有一節課,教育部也鼓勵地方政府與學校依據地方特色自編鄉土教材。為因應新時代的來臨,教育上進行另一波的改革,九年一貫課程實施,「鄉土教學活動」取消設科,除鄉土語言每週一節課之外,其他鄉土教育課程改以融入方式,打散至七大領域。環境意識抬頭,為鄉土教育注入一股新的元素,鄉土教育不只是培養學生愛家、愛鄉、愛國的情意,更要培養學生關心環境,處理環境問題的能力,以因應氣候變遷,災害頻傳的時代,如何與環境共生。
以南投縣竹山社寮國小為例,「鄉土教學活動」單獨設科時,有學校或南投縣政府編印的鄉土教材作為教師授課內容。九年一貫課程實施後,融入式的鄉土教育能不能落實,教師的觀念態度是關鍵。此外,全省通行的教科書,其內容符合社區、鄉鎮市在地的鄉土內容是非常不足的。而且教學時數不足,師資培訓困難,都是鄉土教育實施的困境。
This article discusses the development of Taiwan local education, analyzes the standard of the social study in the elementary schools in Taiwan, and the progress of Grade 1-9 Curriculum in social study field. We find out that the end of martial law was the watershed of local education. Before the end of martial law, the education system was unitary that the goal and content was specified by the government to fulfill the basic national policy of “anti communism and restore the nation.” Emphasizing the national spirit was always the main guideline in the elementary schools. The text books were published by National Institute for Compilation and Translation, and the content was focus on Chinese history and political history. The voice of the local was suppressed.
In 1970s, when facing a series of diplomacy defeats, the independence concept in Taiwan was growing, intriguing a trend of local social, culture, and the research atmosphere on Taiwan history. Experiencing a debate of local literature, Taiwan consciousness was gradually formed. The touch of literature transferred from the advertizing of Chinese nationalism to the care for Taiwan local areas. After the end of martial law, the politic became democratic and localized, which spread to the education system. Legislators of DPP passed many acts on the localization of Taiwan education, including the implementation of mother-tongue education, the history concept from Taiwan’s viewpoint, add contents about Taiwan history, literature, and geographical location in the textbooks. In response to the revolution, Ministry of Education revised the course standard of schools of all level and opened the approval of the textbooks to the public.
In 1993 when the new course standard for elementary school was announced, “local teaching activity” became an independent subject including dialects, local history, local geography, local science, and local art. Every week has one period of class. Ministry of Education also encourages local government self-edit local materials according to the local features. To cope with the coming of new era, there was another revolution on education. Grade 1-9 Curriculum was implanted and “local teaching activity” was cancelled. Except for one dialect class every week, other local education courses were combined into the seven areas. The rise of the environmental protection, the local education was injected with new elements. Not just cultivating students to love their home, town, and country, local education even trains students to care about the environment and the ability to deal with the environmental issues to live harmoniously in this climate changing and disastrous era.
Take Chushan Sheliao Elementary School in Nantou County as an example, when “local teaching activity” was an independent subject, there were teaching materials edited and published by school or Nantou County Government. After the implantation of Grade 1-9 Curriculum, the attitude of the teachers is the key factor whether the fusing local education can be fulfilled. Furthermore, the textbooks used by the country have insufficient content in comply with community and Local Township. Insufficient teaching hours and difficulty in training the teachers are the predicament of local education implantation.
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