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標題: 高速車床主軸結構熱行為預測與分析
Prediction and Analysis of the thermal behavior for high-speed lathe Spindle structure
作者: 廖志鴻
Hung, Liao-Chih
Contributors: 陳政雄
Cheng-Hsiung Chen
機械工程學系所
關鍵字: CNC車床;熱誤差;有限元素分析
CNC Lathes;Thermal error;Finite Element Method
日期: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-11-21 11:37:20 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 機械工程學系所
摘要: 本論文研究方向為因CNC車床工具機在整機架構為不對稱性,難以架設線上熱誤差補償技術。而影響工具機加工精度的主要來源為主軸結構的熱變形誤差。如能從設計主軸結構時初期搭配有限元素分析軟體就可以預先模擬結構整體的變形量,進而修改設計配置軸承熱源與主軸結構幾何關係,有效消除或降低熱誤差的發生。因此本研究先行架設熱誤差實驗設備在主軸結構本體設置14個溫度感測器在不同實驗測試的條件下量取主軸結構鑄件因主軸軸承運轉發熱所產生的熱溫昇值及運用渦電流位移量取因發熱所產生的結構熱誤差值與模擬值進行比對。熱的來源是出自軸承的運轉摩擦,發熱量的大小由軸承廠商手冊所提供的公式計算,再運用ANSYS模擬分析軟體,並運用試誤學習調整其邊界條件軸承發熱量來模擬因軸承運轉發熱對於主軸結構所產生的熱行為特性進行分析。
分析結果顯示熱溫昇模擬部份;在定轉速1200rpm及1800rpm的實際實驗條件下其溫昇值可模擬擬合誤差值在5℃內。在熱變形模擬部份;其碳鋼試棒X軸與Y軸方向位移量模擬分析與實驗結果比對有很大的差距。僅有Z軸方向熱伸長有預測20%誤差值。並且運用ARX模型進行主軸結構熱誤差建模,在主軸結構的熱變形最大可達170微米左右其預測達可到±5微米。提出ANSYS主軸結構溫昇熱變形運用(auto regressive exogenous(ARX))熱誤差模型預測Z軸軸向熱誤差其預測值約±20微米。其主要目的為往後進行初期設計結構時,將模型建立後,在運用有限元素分析軟體進行模擬得到溫度分佈及位移量,再利用熱誤差補償模型ARX進行熱誤差預測,此方法可節省實際架設實驗設備的時間成本。因此在定性研究方法運用有限元素分析軟體進行熱誤差預測,得到定量精確數值尚需長時間進行模擬分析與熱誤差實驗相互比對找出模擬設定經驗法則。
In this research CNC lathe machine tool machine architecture for the asymmetry,it is difficult to set up online thermal error compensation technology.affent the machineing accuracy of machine tools,the main source of erroe for the thermal deformation of the spindle structure.Early from the design of the spindle with finite element analysis software can sinmulate the deformation of the structure of the overall pre and thus to modify the design configuration bearing the heat soure and the spindle structure of geometric relationships and to effectively eliminate or reduce the occurrence of thermal error.Thermal error experiment equipment of this study is first erected in the spindle structure body is set to 14 temperature sensors in the different experimental conditions to measure the spindle structure of the castion operation of the heat generated by the thermal temperature rise due to the spindle bearings and the use of eddy current displacement takethe structure of the thermal error due to fever and simulated values for comparison.The source of heat is from the operation of the bearing friction formula to calculate the size of the heat provided by the bearing manufacturers manual using ANSYS simulation software, and use trial and error learning to adjust its boundary conditions bearing haet to sinmulate the bearing due to running fever for the thermal behavior of the spindle structure.
The analysis showed that the thermal temperature rise of the simulation part;its temperature rise can simulate the actual experimental conditions fixed speed of 1200rpm and 1800rpm fitting error within 5℃.In the thermal deformation for the simulation part;its carbon steel test bars X-axis and Y-axis direction displacement amount of simulation and experimental results have a big gap. Only a Z-axis thermal expansion forecast a 20% error.And the use of the ARX model for spindle structure thermal error modeling and prediction about the thermal deformation of the spindle structure up to 170 micron up to ±5 microns.Proposed the ANSYS spindle structure of themrmal expansion drformation the use of thermal error model predictions (auto regressive exogenous(ARX))Z axis axial thermal error of the predictive value of about ±20 microns.The main purpose finite element analysis software to simulate the temperature distribution and displacement,reuse thermal error compensation model ARX thermal error prediction,this method can save the actual erection of experiments back to the initial design of the struceture, the modelthe time cost of he equipment. Therefore,the use of finite element anslysis software in qualitative research methods for the therma error prediction quantitatively accurate values will take a long time simulation analysis and thermal error experiment with each other than the set rule of thumb to find out the simulation.
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