Avian coccidiosis is caused by protozoan parasites within the genus Eimeria, resulting in catastrophic economic loss in poultry industry by series of symptoms including (bloody) diarrhea, weight loss, depressing egg production and even death in chickens. So far, chemoprophylaxis is the primary control method for coccidiosis but it has been complicated by the emergence of drug resistance, expensive cost for inventing new drug, and arising concerning to drug residue in poultry products. Therefore, alternative control strategies are being sought worldwide. The complicated emergence ability of drug residue and resistance of natural products make them been studied towards coccidiosis extensively. For example, Artemisinin, polysaccharide, various kinds of essential oil, and herbal medicine are identified with anticoccidial effects.
This study is mainly divided into 2 parts. First of all, the coccidiocide and coccidiostat efficacy of commercial organic acid as drink additive (FRAR AC line) was assessed. Consequently, the FRAR AC line with different concentrations (0.4, 0.08, and 0.04%) was given to the experimental group in drinking water after coccidial infection as coccidiostat. The second part of this study was appraising the prophylaxis and treatment efficacy of fresh (A), dehydrated (B), and freeze-dried (C) preparations of garlic. Therefore, the experimental groups were assigned to 3 groups. One-day-old Leghorn and Arbor Acres breed chicks were used in this study. Prophylaxis groups were given experimental additives from 2 days old and treatment groups were given after oral oocyst inoculation when they were 14 days old. O.P.G., weight gain, and mortality were monitored as anticoccidial efficacy parameters. Intestinal weight ratio was also recorded during the experiments for estimating the ability as an anticoccidial parameter. The results indicated that FRAR AC line was not only absent in prophylaxis nor in treatment efficacy with increasing O.P.G. was observed throughout the experiment. Garlic, on the other hand, the prophylaxis efficacy was superior to treatment with the greatest prophylaxis efficacy observed in A preparation. The intestinal weight ratio was lower in negative control groups than positive control group, indicating the high potential as a novel anticoccidial efficacy parameter.
In conclusion, FRAR AC line is not suitable as neither prophylactic nor anticoccidial drug. However, since FRAR AC line is confirmed with antimicrobial effects, 0.08% in drinking water may be beneficial in bacterial infection without emerging coccidiosis. Garlic is good to be used as coccidiocide which fresh garlic reached the best performance.