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National Chung Hsing University Institutional Repository - NCHUIR > 獸醫學院 > 獸醫學系所 > 依資料類型分類 > 碩博士論文 >  飲水中添加有機酸及飼料中添加大蒜對感染盲腸型球蟲雞隻之生物效應

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nchuir.lib.nchu.edu.tw/handle/309270000/155296

標題: 飲水中添加有機酸及飼料中添加大蒜對感染盲腸型球蟲雞隻之生物效應
Biological effects of organic acids as drink additives and garlic(Allium sativum) as feed additives in chicknes challenged with Eimeria tenella
作者: 周洵
Chou, Shyun
Contributors: 董光中
Kwong-Chung Tung
獸醫學系暨研究所
關鍵字: 盲腸型球蟲;有機酸;大蒜
Eimeria tenella;Organic acid;garlic
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-21 11:50:04 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 獸醫學系暨研究所
摘要: 雞球蟲症由Eimeria屬的原蟲引起,造成下痢、血痢、體重降低、營養吸收不良造成肉雞成長遲緩、蛋雞產蛋量下降甚至是死亡等臨床症狀,對養雞產業造成非常嚴重的經濟損失。目前球蟲的控制主要為化學療法,但抗藥性球蟲的增加、昂貴的新藥開發費用及消費者對禽類肉品及蛋製品藥物殘留議題之關注提升,使得全世界積極地研究其他控制方法。天然物不會引起藥物殘留,也較不容易產生抗藥性,故近年來許多天然物已被廣泛研究在球蟲控制上,如青蒿素、polysaccharide、各種植物精油及中藥草皆被證實有抗雞球蟲之效果。
本試驗分為2大部分,評估市售有機酸飲水添加物(水精靈R)及大蒜飼料添加物之抗球蟲效果。首先探討水精靈R預防及治療效果,之後以感染球蟲後添加0.4%、0.08%及0.04%水精靈R作為實驗組別。第2部分除了大蒜的預防及治療效果外,探討新鮮(A)、烘乾(B)及低溫真空乾燥(C)3種不同大蒜處理方式對球蟲症之效果。實驗使用蛋雞(Leghorn)及肉雞(Arbor Acres),預防組於2日齡開始投予實驗添加物,治療組則於14日齡口服感染球蟲後才開始投予。實驗以O.P.G.、增重量、死亡率及病變分數作為抗球蟲效果評估因子,並檢測腸道相對重量在球蟲症之應用。實驗結果顯示水精靈R無治療及預防效果,且會增加O.P.G.。大蒜之預防效果比治療佳,而新鮮大蒜之效果最佳。陰性對照組之腸道相對重量比率顯著低於陽性對照組,極有潛力作為抗球蟲評估因子。
綜合以上結果,水精靈R不適合做為預防及治療球蟲使用,但由於水精靈R有抗細菌效果,0.08%水精靈R較具潛力能抑制細菌而不引起嚴重之球蟲病害。大蒜適合作為預防投予,且投予新鮮大蒜之效果最佳。
Avian coccidiosis is caused by protozoan parasites within the genus Eimeria, resulting in catastrophic economic loss in poultry industry by series of symptoms including (bloody) diarrhea, weight loss, depressing egg production and even death in chickens. So far, chemoprophylaxis is the primary control method for coccidiosis but it has been complicated by the emergence of drug resistance, expensive cost for inventing new drug, and arising concerning to drug residue in poultry products. Therefore, alternative control strategies are being sought worldwide. The complicated emergence ability of drug residue and resistance of natural products make them been studied towards coccidiosis extensively. For example, Artemisinin, polysaccharide, various kinds of essential oil, and herbal medicine are identified with anticoccidial effects.
This study is mainly divided into 2 parts. First of all, the coccidiocide and coccidiostat efficacy of commercial organic acid as drink additive (FRAR AC line) was assessed. Consequently, the FRAR AC line with different concentrations (0.4, 0.08, and 0.04%) was given to the experimental group in drinking water after coccidial infection as coccidiostat. The second part of this study was appraising the prophylaxis and treatment efficacy of fresh (A), dehydrated (B), and freeze-dried (C) preparations of garlic. Therefore, the experimental groups were assigned to 3 groups. One-day-old Leghorn and Arbor Acres breed chicks were used in this study. Prophylaxis groups were given experimental additives from 2 days old and treatment groups were given after oral oocyst inoculation when they were 14 days old. O.P.G., weight gain, and mortality were monitored as anticoccidial efficacy parameters. Intestinal weight ratio was also recorded during the experiments for estimating the ability as an anticoccidial parameter. The results indicated that FRAR AC line was not only absent in prophylaxis nor in treatment efficacy with increasing O.P.G. was observed throughout the experiment. Garlic, on the other hand, the prophylaxis efficacy was superior to treatment with the greatest prophylaxis efficacy observed in A preparation. The intestinal weight ratio was lower in negative control groups than positive control group, indicating the high potential as a novel anticoccidial efficacy parameter.
In conclusion, FRAR AC line is not suitable as neither prophylactic nor anticoccidial drug. However, since FRAR AC line is confirmed with antimicrobial effects, 0.08% in drinking water may be beneficial in bacterial infection without emerging coccidiosis. Garlic is good to be used as coccidiocide which fresh garlic reached the best performance.
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