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標題: 銅箔廠含銅廢水及污泥回收效益分析
The study of cost-effectiveness on copper recovery in wastewater and sludge in a copper foil factory
作者: 許錦德
Shiu, Jin-De
Contributors: 張書奇
環境工程學系所
關鍵字: 含銅廢水;含銅污泥;銅箔工廠;電解銅箔;回收
copper-containing wastewater;copper sludge;copper plant;electrodeposited (ED) copper foil;recovery
日期: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-11-21 11:52:42 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 環境工程學系所
摘要: 本研究探討銅箔工廠的含銅廢水及污泥處理技術。國內銅箔工廠生產之電解銅箔,是台灣第二大電子零組件產業印刷電路板最重要的上游原料。而不論是銅箔市場的需求、國際銅價的趨勢、水資源及環境議題,皆顯示銅箔工廠所需要的含銅廢水及污泥回收技術,將是左右產業發展的關鍵技術。
經回顧含銅廢水處理相關文獻及與廠商接觸後,發現產業界現行之運作模式是文獻中未提及的。第一,目前多數銅箔工廠的廢水處理程序為,結合RO逆滲透、真空蒸發與離子交換法,回收含銅廢水再利用。第二,因應國際銅價的高昇,銅箔工廠販賣含銅污泥給回收廠,回收廠再利用火法熔煉回收銅資源後販賣,兩者之間形成一互利結構。從以上兩點可知,含銅廢水之處理模式並非單純技術問題,若未能從整體經濟面來深入探討,將無法跟上產業界的快速變化。
故本研究首先透過分析含銅污泥之回收效益,了解處理含銅污泥過程中,銅箔工廠與回收廠之間得利潤成本分擔。再經由分析廢水處理程序之成本結構,提出新的廢水處理程序設計,並計算出廢水減量對含銅污泥濃度、污泥販賣價格、廢水處理程序營運成本之影響。此外也分析廢水完全回收或再減量之可行性,以及再減量時銅污泥處理方式。
經本研究之探討與分析,推論出兩項對現行銅箔工廠的建議。第一,銅箔工廠應自行建立火法熔煉回收銅之技術,自行回收銅污泥的經濟效益將高於委託回收廠商處理的效益。第二,真空蒸發程序前應以離子交換法濃縮含銅廢水,透過螯合陽離子交換樹脂提供較高的濃縮倍數,來取代RO逆滲透濃縮,可大幅降低工廠廢水處理的主要營運成本,真空蒸發程序消耗的電費。
This study aims to explore economic benefits of copper-containing wastewater and sludge recovery in copper plants. Electrodeposited (ED) copper foil whose productivity of Taiwan ranked the top one in the world, is the key raw material of printed circuit board (PCB), and PCB is the second largest electronic components industry in Taiwan.
Recovery of copper-containing wastewater and sludge is one of the important issues of industrial development, no matter if the perspectives are economic benefits, water resource or environmental protection. A recovery system usually adapted in Taiwan ED copper plaints today was never mentioned before in literatures, and it consists of two parts: First, combining reverse osmosis (RO), vacuum evaporation, ion-exchange processes to recovery the copper-containing wastewater. Second, selling copper sludge to resource recovery companies. These companies could recover the copper from sludge by pyrometallurgy refining. Consequently, the recovery of copper-containing wastewater and copper sludge are not only technology issues, but also refer to the economic benefits of copper plants, therefore only considering the whole economic picture can understand the practical situation.
In this study, costs/benefits of copper plants and resource recovery companies respectively in treatment process of copper-containing wastewater and copper sludge were calculated. This cost-benefit analysis suggested a new design of wastewater treatment process. The effects of wastewater reduction on copper sludge concentration, sludge selling price and whole economic benefits were also estimated respectively. Besides, the possibilities of total/further wastewater recycling and the corresponding sludge treatment methods were also discussed.
This study carried out two suggestions for copper plant. First, copper plants should establish pyrometallurgy refining process in plants, which brings more benefit rather than selling copper sludge to recovery companies. Second, ion-exchange methods should replace RO process to concentrate copper-containing wastewater before further condensation by vacuum evaporation, where chelating ion-exchange resin with high concentration ability can reduce the major cost of wastewater treatment, the electricity fee of vacuum evaporation.
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