本研究建立一高溫好氧併同厭氧的串聯處理系統，將高溫好氧反應槽置於厭氧槽中，槽中分別植入高溫好氧菌與厭氧消化菌，以評估本系統處理高濃度有機廢水的成效。高溫好氧程序雖可有效的降解高濃度有機物，但因進流水屬高濃度廢水，處理後出流水濃度仍偏高。因此，後續將利用厭氧消化程序作進一步處理，將高溫好氧程序未處理完的廢水以及高溫好氧槽的污泥進一步加以處理，期望能達到污泥減量的目的。 本系統高溫好氧併同厭氧反應槽之有效體積，好氧槽為30 L、厭氧槽為300 L，溫度分別為好氧槽控制在55oC、厭氧槽經操作後為47~50oC。系統以麩胺酸及蔗糖作為進流基質，COD約10,000 mg/L，待系統穩定後分別控制進流基濃度和HRT參數，評估系統降解高濃度有機物之可行性，並且以PCR-DGGE分別觀察好氧以及厭氧反應槽之菌相組成。 本研究結果顯示，待高溫好氧併同厭氧系統穩定後，sCOD之生物降解效率最高可達96%，厭氧槽VS削減率最高為57%。本實驗利用PCR-DGGE分析厭氧反應槽的菌相組成，顯示厭氧反應槽中含有Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus菌，屬高溫厭氧甲烷菌。但是在系統產氣經由採樣分析，顯示甲烷含量偏低，推測厭氧反應槽中基質濃度不足，導致甲烷含量偏低。 The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an aerobic thermophilic following by an anaerobic reactor on the treatment of high concentration organic wastewater. Although thermophilic aerobic process removed high organic contents effectively, but the concentration of effluent was still high. After the thermophilic aerobic treatmmt, anaerobic digestion process digested and decomposed the sludge which had been produced from the thermophilic aerobic treatment and achieved the purpose of sludge reduction. In this research, the aerobic reactor of 30 L was maintained at 55oC and the anaerobic reactor of 300 L was operated at 47~50oC. The high concentration organic wastewater consisted of glutamic acid sucrose to make the influent substrate of 10,000 mg-COD/L for the system. After the system reached steady state, system was operated at different the HRT and the influent concentrations to evaluate the removal efficiency. PCR-DGGE was employed to determine the microbial community of mixed culture in this reactor. The results showed that the highest removal efficiency of the overall sCOD is up to 96%, VS reduction rate is up to 57% in anaerobic reactor. The molecular approach of PCR-DGGE was used to assess microbial diversity in an aerobic thermophilic following by an anaerobic treatment system. As a result, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus were certainly the dominant microorganisms in the anaerobic reactor.