熱可塑性聚氨酯彈性體TPU是由二異氰酸二苯甲烷(MDI)及聚酯多元醇所組成的高分子材料，廣泛地被應用在鞋底材料、運動用品及合成皮的製造。而聚酯多元醇為TPU的主要原料，製造過程中會有高濃度低水量特性廢水的產出，如無妥善處理，極可能貢獻為該產業環境污染的主因。 本研究利用生化甲烷產能試驗(BMP test)及厭氧毒性檢定(ATA test)兩種方式，測定不同濃度聚酯多元醇產出廢水之厭氧生物處理可行性，目的在測試此類廢水是否會對厭氧細菌有抑制或毒害，來判斷該股廢水是否適合使用厭氧生物處理，進一步希望能將相關數據提供作為模廠測試或實廠運作時濃度調配的參考。本研究一共測試四股廢水，實驗結果顯示，A廠HPBA廢水進行BMP test可得71% 之COD去除率，為四股廢水中最高者，對照其產氣量也是四股廢水中最佳的。但A廠HPBA廢水之比甲烷產氣率於COD 測試濃度8000mg/L以上時便會產生抑制，此抑制原因推論為廢水濃度太高而對厭氧細菌產生毒害，如果厭氧細菌長期處於該濃度廢水中，可能會導致厭氧細菌死亡而失去處理廢水的能力。其餘各股廢水則皆無明顯抑制或毒害現象，但因為HPBA此股廢水占A廠水量2/3，是此製程中產出量最大的廢水，為了避免廢水濃度太高造成厭氧細菌抑制或毒害的現象，建議在下一階段模廠測試時將進流水COD 濃度控制在8000mg/L以下，以維持最佳的處理效率。ATA test中每股廢水產氣量均高於空白組，推論此類高濃度聚酯多元醇產出廢水對厭氧細菌無明顯毒害現象，可以進行厭氧生物處理。 Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a polymer material composed of methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) and polyester polyol . With widely useful properties, TPU has been employed in sole materials, sporting goods and synthetic leathers. Polyester polyol is the major component of TPU, however, may generate wastewater containing water-insoluble high molecular weight, which would become a leading cause of environmental pollution if not properly handled. Biochemical methane potential test (BMP test) and anaerobic toxicity assay test (ATA test) were applied in this study for examining the wastewater of polyester polyol at different concentrations and its feasible treatment to anaerobic biological wastewater. Through this way, we could find out whether the wastewater curb or poison the anaerobic bacterium, thereby deciding the wastewater’s suitability as the use of anaerobic biological treatment. Meanwhile, it could offer the data on the test of model assessment or concentration adjustment for actual operation. There were four types of wastewater being tested during this research. The result of BMP test applying in HPBA wastewater of factory A came out 71% as the highest COD removal efficiency and also performed the most effective gas production amongst all wastewater. However, if the methane gas production shown more than 8000 mg/L at COD concentration would cause inhibition of anaerobic bacterium. This may explain the higher concentration of wastewater causing death of anaerobic bacterium and thus make them disable to manage the wastewater if they stay in this difficult situation for long. The other three types of wastewater remained normal. Due to HPBA wastewater accounted for 67% of total water consumption and was the largest amount wastewater in this process. The result suggested that the COD concentration should be controlled under 8000 mg/L in order to maintain the efficient process. Each gas production of four types of wastewater in ATA test presented higher than the control group, which means, the wastewater from high concentration of polyester polyol did not harm any anaerobic bacterium and was able to perform anaerobic biological treatment.