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標題: 專用漁業權經營管理之研究─以彰化區漁會牡蠣養殖為例
Exclusive Fishing Right Management by Chang-hua Fishery Association ─A Case Study of Oyster Aquaculture
作者: 陳諸讚
Chen, Chu-Tsan
Contributors: 黃琮琪
農業企業經營管理碩士在職專班
關鍵字: 專用漁業權;入漁權;淺海牡蠣養殖;漁業權補償;成本效益
Exclusive Fishing Right;Common of Piscary;Oyster Aquaculture in Shallows;Compensation of Fishing Right;Cost and Revenue
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-26 10:09:48 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 農業企業經營管理碩士在職專班
摘要: 彰化縣潮間帶為漁民世代賴以維生的地方,蚵民在海灘上從事淺海牡蠣養殖,然而長久以來漁民沒有入漁權,無法獲得權益之保障,又近年海域經濟開發衍生漁業權補償問題,漁民爭取鉅額補償,引發外界不良觀感。本研究進行專用漁業權經營管理之實務運作及針對牡蠣養殖成本收益進行問卷分析,一來可供作為其他專用漁業權人之管理參考,二來可以化解外界對專用漁業權人只坐享「專用漁業權」權力,未盡專用漁業權人管理責任之誤覺,為本研究動機。
本研究從漁民從來使用淺海養殖地之權益切入探討,並論述彰化區漁會在政府核准專用漁業權執照範圍內進行海岸空間的經營管理內容、詳述辦理漁民入漁的步驟與過程,其成功經驗,可以供為後續專用漁業權人管理參考援用。並進一步分析彰化淺海牡蠣養殖經營成本,期望研究結論有助於作為漁業支持與農業天然災害補救政策之參考,並關注淺海牡蠣養殖漁民應有之權益保障為目的。本研究結論為:
一、基於憲法第15條保障人民之財產權之立意,我國專用漁業權制度為保障漁民在一定水域入漁權,確保其生計。對於漁民使用淺海養殖地的權益,遭受到行政機關適法徵收後,達到漁業權損害補償之要件,應予以合理之補償。漁業權補償制度能在海域經濟開發與漁民權益保障之間取得適宜的平衡。
二、沿岸海域屬於國家財產,也是漁民謀生的場所。彰化區漁會取得專用漁業權執照,在沿岸海域經營管理上,尊重從來使用者立場,辦理入漁權申請,建立漁民責任漁業觀念,同時可以獲得農業天然災害之保障,兼具維護漁業資源與保障漁民權益之目的。
三、本研究僅對彰化縣牡蠣養殖個別漁民經營情形進行成本效益分析,以作為漁業支持與災害補救政策之參考。據研究統計分析問卷結果,牡蠣養殖每戶平均成本542,380元,平均總收入789,000元,淨收益為246,620元。
Intertidal areas of coastal Chunghua County have been livelihood dependent for fishermen for generations. Oyster fishermen do aquaculture in the shallows. Recent coastal development derives compensation issues for fishermen due much to that there had been no rights for existing fishermen on the common of piscary in the long run. This study applies operational management framework to analyze practical works done by Changhua Area Fishermen Association. The cost structure and revenue structure are also analyzed for the reference of operational performance alongside the recent release of exclusive fishing right for Oyster fishermen. Some suggestions are used for future operational reference to make such fishing right sound in different dimensions.
The operational management on the space of coastal oyster aquaculture under the release of exclusive fishing right for Changhua Area Fishermen Association is explained in details by taking the fishermen rights and successful procedure into account. Cost structure survey will provide reference for possible future compensation to fishermen if their oyster farms are damaged by natural disaster. The conclusions are:
1.Based on the article 15 of Constitution, the exclusive fishing right is to assure livelihood for fishermen. Thus, certain damage level from natural disaster must be compensated due to land collection done by the government. The compensation to exclusive fishing right can be balanced in association to economic development in coastal areas.
2.Changhua Area Fishermen Association is authorized to have the licensing right for the operation of coastal area management. The implementation of piscary application for fishermen and conceptual construction on responsible fishery may support the compensation from natural disaster and maintenance of fishery resources as well as shallow fishermen rights and interests.
3.The average oyster production cost and revenue in Changhua area is calculated to be 542,380 NTDs and 786,000 NTDs per household, respectively. As a result, net revenue is 246,620 NTDs per household. This could become the reference of possible future compensation of fishing right associated with certain-level damage of natural disaster.
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