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標題: 鹿谷鄉茶產業產銷變遷之研究
The Transition for Tea Industry of Lugu Township in Taiwan
作者: 張玉宜
Chang, Yu-I
Contributors: 黃琮琪
農業企業經營管理碩士在職專班
關鍵字: 茶產業;產銷;變遷;高價茶;鹿谷
Tea Industry;Production;Marketing;Transitions;Fine Tea;Lugu
日期: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-11-26 10:10:08 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 農業企業經營管理碩士在職專班
摘要: 近年來鹿谷鄉茶產業產銷體系發生重大之變遷,茶園及製茶廠大幅減少。全盛時期時,1989年種植面積達1,984公頃,1987年調查的製茶廠有1,160家。 然而,根據農糧署統計2013年面積剩675.5公頃,調查的製茶廠僅剩101家。本文探討鹿谷鄉茶產業產銷現況及變遷,以問卷分別調查目前茶園、製茶廠與茶行之產製銷體系,研究分析鹿谷鄉茶產業因政策條件、自然環境、地震天災及開放進口茶等因素影響之變遷情形。主要研究結果可整合為六個面向,(1)生產投入:人力成本與能源高漲,從業人口老化;(2)茶園地理分布:中低海拔茶園減少往高海拔變遷,茶葉開放進口衝擊中低海拔茶品,使茶園放棄耕作且茶農往國外投資開發茶園;(3)製作及加工:規模大型製茶廠產能高,有穏定的設備及專業人力來管控茶品產製安全,自產自製之餘亦受託代工及廠房出租;(4)運銷:比賽茶價格節節升,高海拔茶葉需求增加而部分茶農由外地購進茶葉補足,運銷模式朝向建立品牌,往國內連鎖及國際通路合作,使鹿谷由生產地提升為集散地;(5)土地:鹿谷土地生產優質高級茶品受限,是茶鄉永續經營的瓶頸和限制,應放寬優質茶園土地;(6)政府政策:相關產業政策應將鹿谷精緻高價茶品與進口茶區隔,並且茶葉的高貴更可在創造農村就業機會的可貴上彰顯。
Tea industry in Lugu Township in recent years has experienced significant changes in the production and marketing system. In its heyday, the tea planted area was about 1,984 hectares in 1989, and the number of tea manufacturing factories was 1,160. However, according to the COA statistics in 2013, the area reduced to 675.5 hectares and the number of factories dropped to 101. This article examined current status of tea production and marketing in Lugu and also investigated transitions for the tea industry. Questionnaires were designed to survey tea plantations, tea manufacturing factories and specialty tea shops respectively. The results showed the analysis of structure changes in the tea industry, including (1) Production inputs: the costs of labor and energy inputs kept rising while facing a crisis of aged tea growers and plantation workers; (2) Geographic distribution of tea plantations: the planting area considerably moved from low-altitude areas toward high-altitude areas, mainly due to the competition of low-priced imported tea; (3) Manufacturing and processing: current tea manufacturing factories are mostly large-scaled with highly efficient production technology and capacity; (4) Marketing: prices of the award-winning fine tea greatly rise every year. As the demand of high-altitude quality tea highly increased, some tea growers purchased tea and tea leaves from other tea production areas. Thus, Lugu is not only a famous tea production area but also a tea distribution center. (5) Land: tea planted areas has been decreased due to limited land for high quality tea cultivation. The regulations of highland use should be relaxed for concerns about the sustainability of Lugu tea industry; (6) Government policy: policies should aim to differentiate high-quality fine Lugu tea from the imported tea and to increase local employment opportunities.
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