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標題: ADCP活動式量測系統於河川流量觀測應用之研究
Application of ADCP Portable Measuring System to Streamflow Observation
作者: 徐偉碩
Contributors: 盧昭堯
國立中興大學
關鍵字: ADCP
流量觀測
日期: 2003
Issue Date: 2012-08-17 16:30:13 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 土木工程學系
摘要: 台灣河川現行之流量觀測方法,乃使用機械式流速儀於斷面各垂線逐一量測流速及水深積分而得。此法雖簡易,但於寬廣渠道或中、高流量量測時,往往無法及時同步獲致各垂線流速資料,以致降低流量資料之準確性。本研究利用河川流量新量測技術,並配合聲波杜卜勒流速儀活動式量測系統觀測流量,冀能迅速而準確地推估中、高水位之流量。
文中分析水利署河川局全洪程測站之近年實測流量資料,探討其新量測技術相關參數〔y-軸(通過斷面最大流速之垂線)、比值(斷面平均流速 與最大流速 之比值)及推估通水斷面積〕之穩定性及準確性,此外,並評估新量測技術於各河型之適用性。
研究結果顯示,順直、窄深型河道或經低水治理後之河道,無論於高水位或低水位,y-軸皆屬穩定,新量測技術適用性頗佳。寬廣河川若為辮狀河川,低流量時y-軸極不穩定,高流量時y-軸則較為穩定,仍可採用新量測技術推估流量。斜升型及彎曲型河道,於中高流量時,y-軸較穩,適用性較佳。
根據參數分析可知,各測站之 與umax之相關性頗高,當水位達一定之高程後, 值有趨穩之現象。整體而言,斷面積推估之方法,以BD值法(水面寬與y-軸水深之乘積)最為準確。
另外,以ADCP活動式量測系統,於溪南橋測站進行流量量測,其實測流量與新量測技術之推估流量頗為一致,且該系統之機動性甚高,未來頗具發展與應用價值。
In Taiwan, streamflow is calculated based on the point velocity measurements for all the verticals in a river cross section using a mechanical type current meter at present. Although the method is easy, all the velocity data can't be obtained simultaneously for a wide river during the medium and high flows. The accuracy of the flow discharge is therefore reduced. To resolve this problem, a new flow discharge estimation technology, with application of an ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler), is adopted to rapidly and accurately observe the medium and high flows.
The flow discharge data collected recently at important gauging stations by the River Management Bureaus of the Water Resources Agency were analyzed in this study. The new flow discharge estimation technology and the stability and accuracy of the parameters [y-axis (the vertical line passing the maximum velocity of the cross section), (the ratio of mean velocity to maximum velocity of a cross section), and the estimated flow area] were discussed. The applicability of the new flow discharge measuring technology to different types of river was also evaluated.
The results of this study indicated that the y-axis for straight, narrow and deep rivers, or rivers with low flow management were stable during either high or low flow. The applicability of the new flow discharge measuring technology was fairly high. For braided stream, the y-axis was extremely unstable during low flow, but it was relatively stable and the new technology can be adopted during high flow. As for channel with tilting cross section or meandering river, y-axis was relatively stable and the new technology was applicable for medium and high flows.
In general, the correlation between the mean velocity and the maximum velocity for each station was fairly high. The value was getting stable as the water level reached a certain height. It was also found that BD (product of water surface width and flow depth at y-axis) was the best variable for estimating the cross sectional area of the flow.
Based on the field test conducted at Hsi-Nan bridge station, it was found that the flow discharge measured by the portable ADCP system was fairly consistent with the value estimated by the new estimation technology. The system has high maneuverability and high potential for future development and application.
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