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標題: 上古漢語與古藏語詞族之比較研究
On the Comparison of Old Chinese and Written Tibetan Word Families
作者: 丘彥遂
Contributors: 行政院國家科學委員會;國立中興大學中國文學系(所)
關鍵字: 基礎研究
Old Chinese;Written Tibetan;Comparison of Word Families;Affixes System;Morphology;Cognates
語文
日期: 2012
Issue Date: 2012-08-28 16:41:02 (UTC+8)
摘要: 方興未艾的上古漢語詞綴研究,丘彥遂(2008、2010)曾對其形態作了初步的觀察。然而古音研究本已不易,如今更要加入形態學的相關知識,針對整個漢語詞綴體系進行研究,只能說,這是一項充滿刺激的、高難度的挑戰。有鑒於此,本計畫認為,積極建立具相同詞根的詞族,從內部發現上古漢語的各種詞綴,這是當前必須處理的問題。研究上古漢語,若能夠建立起一組組的詞族,才能看清楚上古漢語的各種詞綴形態及其語法功能,才能進一步構擬原始漢語的詞綴體系。這時候加上藏語詞族的比較、古藏語詞綴形態的觀察等,就能彌補漢語內部材料的不足,同時也能得到雙倍的成效,等於在堅實的理論基礎上,再加一道保固。因此整理出藏語詞族、漢藏同源詞族乃當務之急。所幸黃布凡(1992)、全廣鎮(1996)、俞敏(1999)、施向東(2000)、張濟川(2009)等人已著手相關的工作,並取得了一定的成果。進行漢藏語詞族的比較,不但可以分析出上古漢語的詞綴形態,甚至可以進一步構擬出整個原始漢語的詞綴體系。上古漢語的詞綴形態與古藏語是否同源?兩者之間的關係是同源異流,還是異源同流?這是上古漢語詞綴研究逐步邁向系統化所必須反思的問題,也是形態研究進入高階段的象徵。
The study of Old Chinese affixes are being at the starting stage, Qiu(丘彥遂,2008、2010) hadmade a preliminary research of the relevant affixes form. However, that is too difficult to study theProto-Chinese affixes system than Old Chinese phonology, we can only say, this is an exciting anddemanding challenge difficult challenge. Therefore, the effective approach is to establish wordfamilies with a common root for each group of cognates, and then to reconstruct the affixes systemof Proto-Chinese.Research on Old Chinese should not anymore be confined in Chinese internal material thatcannot lead to accurate results, only the comparison between relative languages can makefurther-reaching effects. Tibetan word families and observation to Tibetan affixes morphology, asbasic material for Old Chinese phonology, should not only be attached just importance to but also bebrought into full play in methodology, although a breakthrough has been made in Sino-Tibetancomparison. Fortunately Huang(黃布凡,1992), Quan(全廣鎮,1996), Yu(俞敏,1999), Shi(施向東,2000)and Zhang(張濟川,2009)has started the relevant work, and achieved some results.Comparison of Sino-Tibetan word families, not only can parse out the Old Chinese affixes form, alsocan go further and proposed a whole affixes system of Proto-Chinese.The relationship between Old Chinese morphology and Written Tibetan morphology ishomologous or different source? This is a question of the study on Old Chinese affixes towardssystematic that must be applied, and a symbol of the study on Chinese morphology had been into ahigh stage
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