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標題: 921地震後大甲溪流域全方位治理之研究
A Comprehensive Study of Watershed Restoration Plan after 921 Earthquake for Ta-Chia River Basin
作者: 張哲銘
Ming, Chang Che
Contributors: 鄭皆達
國立中興大學
關鍵字: 大甲溪流域
日期: 2004
Issue Date: 2012-08-31 14:28:11 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 水土保持學系
摘要: 大甲溪流域水資源利用率極高,其水源為大台中地區供水、發電、灌溉等標的用水之主要來源,但在民國88年921地震後造成集水區地層鬆脫、岩層破碎。民國九十年七月至十月間,包括桃芝、納莉、利其馬等颱風外圍環流所帶來的豪雨,造成大甲溪流域集水區內坡地及河道沿岸崩坍、地滑及土石下移處處可見,災情相當嚴重,包括公路及其他交通道路中斷、多處民房遭土石流淹沒沖毀、住民傷亡失蹤多人。因此,大甲溪流域災後的整體治理極為重要。
本研究分析影響大甲溪流域水土災害的自然因子(水文氣象、地形地質、地震等)及人文因子(社會、政治、經濟),評估流域過去及目前保育治理工作之內涵,依據學理及過去經驗,針對集水區保育治理問題,提出全方位集水區整體保育治理因應對策與改進意見,期能有助於提供未來本流域水土資源整體保育治理及永續利用對策研定之參考。
本研究探討結果發現大甲溪流域內土砂產量主要集中於石岡壩至德基壩間共28個子集水區,基於保全對象及減少沖蝕及水庫淤積等目標考量,應針對這些子集水區崩塌地(面積約3,162公頃)及土石流潛勢溪流(共65條)列為優先治理對象。大甲溪兩岸崩塌嚴重,為有效防止或減輕坡地所產生泥砂下移,應於兩岸設置保護帶,並發揮改善水質之功能。此外,整治工程設計時應依因地制宜原則,融入生態理念妥善應用生態工法,以期達到兼顧安全及生態保育功能的目的,助大地復原。流域內各項經營保育治理工作及措施,尤其是土地合理利用的推動,其成敗有賴於一般民眾與土地所有者及使用者的充份配合,因此應透過民眾參與,讓民眾協助政府評定問題的嚴重性與原因,找出有效可行的解決對策。
在流域內土地利用問題方面,近年來由於社會經濟的改變,大甲溪流域內林地雖未有增減,但公有的草生地或荒野地被開發等果園、蔬菜等農業使用面積有明顯增加趨勢。流域內土地濫墾、佔用及未依土地利用限度使用(超限利用)之情況嚴重。此現象主要集中於德基水庫上游坡地之農耕使用(溫帶果樹、高冷蔬菜)及大甲溪中、下游山坡地之超限利用。流域內山坡地面積廣闊,政府人力有限,加上土地可利用限度GIS系統尚未完成,致使執行人員認定是否超限利用困難度高。集水區內林班地範圍部份林地遭到濫墾達350公頃。德基水庫集水區內原住民保留地未完成承租或承地未依規定造林改正者,亦高達390公頃。大甲溪主流河道治理計畫線僅公告至天輪壩,此壩以上河段未公告致使高灘地存在建築及農業使用。為使今後流域內土地利用合理化,林務局應儘速確立林業用地地藉及權利狀態,且可免除無謂之土地紛爭;山坡地則依水土保持法規定,由水土保持局及地方政府確切落實違規取締查報;至於水利署則應加強取締河川區域違法行為。
大甲溪為供應大台中地區用水之主要水源,水質良否極為重要,一般而言,其水質尚稱良好,為有效掌握流域內水質變化,必需建立完整的水質監測系統,以便在必要時機,即時採取因應措施,以確保高品質引用水。
在生態保育方面,流域內未來保育計畫應以生物多樣性為標的,長期記錄、觀測來建立生態資料庫,以分析物種與物種間、物種與環境間的相關性;自然環境的復舊固然重要但更要讓民眾瞭解生態保育之意義,避免環境遭受破壞,並形成野生動植物棲息地之重要保育區。
流域全方位治理並非新構想,而係由來已久普遍被認知之理念,但限於法規與機關彼此之間配合程度不足,而未能妥善推動落實此項工作。但隨著社會環境之變遷及國家整體發展之需要,流域(集水區)全方位保育治理乃是未來必然之走向,然流域內上、中、下游分屬水利署、水保局、林務局、退輔會、縣市政府等不同單位機關辦理治理工作,疊床架屋造成多頭馬車,整合不易,績效不彰,今後仍應排除阻力依「上、中、下游」一體、「水、土、林」一家、「集水區、溪流」並重之整體保育治理觀念整合,建立協調平台及機制改善。
The utilization of water resources in the Ta-Chia River Basin(TCRB) is very intensive and the Basin is the main source for water supply, power generation and irrigation in greater Taichung area. The mountain slopes of the TCRB were severely destabilized by the 921 Earthquake in 1999. In addition, during July to October in 2001, Toraji, Nari, and Lekima typhoons hit Taiwan Island successively. Affected by heavy rainfalls brought by these typhoons, landslides, floods, and debris flows occurred frequently in the TCRB. As a result, highways blocked, houses buried by debris flows, and people died or missing. Therefore integrated conservation and management of TCRB is essential.
The study analyzed topographic, geologic, hydrometeorologic, and social-economic that affect soil and water related problems of the TCRB. The past and ongoing conservation and regulation works have been evaluated and appropriate actions and suggestions were proposed based on past experiences. The study intends to provide information useful for basin resource conservation and environmental policy decision-making for sustainable management in TCRB.
This study shows that sedimentation yield of the Ta-Chia River Basin accumulated mainly in 28 sub-basins from She-Gang Dam to De-Ji Dam. To reduce slope erosion and reservoir sedimentation, landslide area (about 31.62 km2) and potential debris flows (65 sites) have to be put in top priority. As for the severe landslides along Ta-Chia River banks, the protective buffer zones should be established to prevent or alleviate the downward movements of soil and help controlling water quality. Besides, the government has to bring an ecological concept into engineering structure design to pursue watershed protection and ecological conservation purposes to restore the land. Success or failure of management and conservation works in the Basin depend on adequate cooperation from the public and land users, especially for proper reasonable land utilization. Public participation can help the Government to evaluate the consequences and causes of the problems as well as feasible solutions.
In recent years, social and economic situations in Taiwan had changed significantly. The exploitation and development of public lands resulted in excessive, inappropriate and illegal land uses. Although areas covered by forests in the TCRB remained the same, areas planted for fruits and vegetables increased significantly. Temperate-zone fruit trees and high elevation vegetables appeared in headwaters areas above De-Ji Dam and excessive land cutivatiation also happened in middle to lower elevation stream slopes of Ta-Chia River. The effective regulation of excessive land uses is difficult due to limited manpower of the Government as well as the incompleteness of GIS for proper land exploitation identification. The residential and agricultural use of lands along in the river channel occurred at headwaters area of Ta-Chia River mainstream due to the official river regulation lines reached only up to Ten-Lun Dam.On the other hand in order to make reasonable land utilization in the TCRB, Forestry Bureau has to identify forest land boundaries as soon as possible in order to ensure people's property rights and to help avoid unnecessary disputes on land. For agricultural slopes, the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau has to properly minimize illegal exploitation according to the Soil and Water Conservation Act. As for river area, Water Resources Agency has to effectively suppress illegal uses of lands along creek banks.
Since the Ta-Chia River is the major water resource for greater Taichung area, the water quality is an essential evaluation component. The water quality in the Ta-Chia river is good for now. The government has to establish an improved water quality monitoring system in order to monitor water quality changes in the Basin.
In the future, for ecological conservation it is important to establish an ecology database with long-term records and observations for variety species and to analyze correlations between species and the environment. It is also necessary to promote through properly planned and implemented public information and education program the meaning of ecology conservation and avoid detrimentally affect environment so as to protect important habitats for plants and wield animals can be preserved.
Comprehensive basin management is not a new concept. It has been recognized for a long time. However, it was not emphasized in the past because of limitations of government regulations and not enough collaboration between government agencies. In order to comply with changes of social environment and development needs of Taiwan, comprehensive basin management will be the way to go in the future.
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